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2022 | 42 | 123-138

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Tramadol and its health implications


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Tramadol is classified as a pain reliever having analgesic properties. Pain is an unpleasant sensation that occurs most commonly as a result of tissue injury. Most opioid medicines are classed as alkaloid compounds and are classified as narcotics because they work on the central nervous system (CNS) to treat pain in conditions such as osteoarthritis, cancer, tooth pain, and kidney discomfort. Tramadol is plentiful in the roots of Nauclea latofolia. It can be chemically and biosynthetically produced from cyclohexanone and L-phenylalanine, respectively. The tramadol dose determines the toxicity stage. The medicine can be detoxified in the liver using monooxygenase enzymes and conjugating agents if taken in excess of the recommended dose. Tramadol works on the central nervous system by acting as a vulnerable agonist and inhibiting serotonin re-uptake. Seizures, genitourinary, dermatologic, and respiratory depression are just a few of tramadol's many side effects. The focus of this research will be on tramadol and its health consequences.








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  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Federal University of Technology Minna, Bosso LGA, Niger State, Nigeria
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Federal University of Technology Minna, Bosso LGA, Niger State, Nigeria


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