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2006 | 6 | 4 | 158-173
Article title

Wpływ leków przeciwpsychotycznych na powstawanie otyłości i zaburzeń metabolicznych u chorych na schizofrenię

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EN
Effect of antipsychotic drugs on weight gain and metabolic disorders in schizophrenic patients
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Abstracts
EN
Many studies indicate that schizophrenic patients constitute a population encumbered with numerous somatic disorders and a higher mortality, as compared to the general population. We do not know yet, however, what role – in the occurrence of certain disorders (e.g. abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus and its consequences, circulatory system diseases, metabolic syndrome) – is played by the pathological process itself, patients’ lifestyle, diet and habits, and what is the contribution of antipsychotics in form of typical neuroleptics and new antipsychotics. The results of the studies indicate that these drugs differently affect the weight gains, occurprorence of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders or even metabolic syndrome by launching various biological mechanisms. The mechanisms of weight gain associated with antipsychotic treatment assume: increase of appetite, disorders in the basal metabolism, decrease in physical activity, changes in concentrations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Furthermore, it was indicated that a weight loss prior to the treatment might also contribute to the occurrence of obesity. The share of individual factors and their combination may differ among patients. Accounting for differences between antipsychotics in view of their effects on the body weight of treated patients is partially connected with their different antihistaminic (through the impact on receptor H1) or cholinolytic effects, antagonistic effects on serotonin receptor 5HT2C and on concentrations of specific regulators of appetite (e.g. leptin, ghrelin, orexin) and also on the occurrence of disorders within the hypothalamus – pituitary gland – gonads axis or secretion of prolactin.
PL
Z wielu badań wynika, że chorzy na schizofrenię stanowią populację obarczoną liczniejszymi zaburzeniami somatycznymi i wyższą śmiertelnością niż populacja ogólna. Ciągle nie wiadomo jednak, jaką rolę w powstaniu niektórych z tych zaburzeń (np. otyłości brzusznej, cukrzycy i jej konsekwencji, chorób układu krążenia, zespołu metabolicznego) odgrywają sam proces chorobowy, styl życia tych chorych, ich dieta, nawyki, a jakie znaczenie mają stosowane u nich leki przeciwpsychotyczne w postaci klasycznych neuroleptyków i leków przeciwpsychotycznych II generacji. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań pokazują, że leki te wpływają w różny sposób na przyrosty masy ciała, wystąpienie zaburzeń gospodarki węglowodanowej oraz lipidowej czy nawet zespołu metabolicznego (poprzez uruchomienie rozmaitych mechanizmów biologicznych). W analizie mechanizmów przyrostu masy ciała związanych z leczeniem przeciwpsychotycznym zakłada się występowanie: wzrostu łaknienia, zaburzeń podstawowej przemiany materii, obniżenia aktywności fizycznej, zmian w zakresie stężeń neuroprzekaźników oraz neuropeptydów. Jednocześnie wykazano, że występujące u niektórych pacjentów obniżenie masy ciała w okresie przed włączeniem leczenia również może mieć wpływ na powstanie otyłości. Udział poszczególnych czynników lub ich kombinacji może być różny u poszczególnych pacjentów. Wyjaśnienie różnic pomiędzy lekami przeciwpsychotycznymi pod względem wpływu na przyrost masy ciała leczonych pacjentów wiąże się częściowo z różnym ich antyhistaminowym (poprzez wpływ na receptor H1) czy cholinolitycznym działaniem, antagonistycznym działaniem na receptor serotoninowy 5HT2C oraz na stężenia określonych regulatorów łaknienia (np. leptyny, greliny, oreksyny), a także na pojawienie się zaburzeń w zakresie osi podwzgórze – przysadka – gonady czy sekrecję prolaktyny.
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Volume
6
Issue
4
Pages
158-173
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Contributors
  • Klinika Zaburzeń Afektywnych, Psychotycznych i Psychiatrii Młodzieżowej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska, akos@csk.umed.lodz.pl
  • Klinika Zaburzeń Afektywnych, Psychotycznych i Psychiatrii Młodzieżowej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
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