We investigated the effect of an acute exposure to chlorphenvinphos (CVP), an organophosphate anticholinesterase, on amphetamine-induced open-field locomotion in rats. CVP was administered in a single i.p. dose of 1.0 mg/kg (1/10 of the LD50). All animals were challenged with 1.0 mg/kg amphetamine (AMPH) three weeks after the CVP exposure, i.e. after a time sufficient for acetylcholinesterase recovery. Some rats were also given AMPH three weeks before the CVP exposure. In rats challenged with AMPH only once after the CVP exposure, AMPH- induced open-field locomotion was significantly reduced. Such an effect was not observed in rats given AMPH three weeks before the CVP exposure. The results suggest that a single CVP exposure may result in persistent dopaminergic hyposensitivity, and that an amphetamine pretreatment may protect the rat against this effect.