Streptomycin-resistant mutants were isolated from mutagenised cotyledon explants of Capsicum praetermissum Heiser & Smith. The explants were mutagenised with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, which resulted in a high frequency of streptomycin-resistant mutants (18.0%) and a low frequency of chlorophyll-deficient (albino) mutants (8.0%). Complete streptomycin-resistant plantlets were obtained after rooting of the regenerated green shoots on rooting medium containing 1.0 mg L?1 IAA and 500 mg L?1 streptomycin sulphate. Leaf-segment assay of these plantlets revealed that they were resistant to streptomycin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, and spectinomycin. Reciprocal crosses between streptomycin-resistant and -sensitive plants showed a non-Mendelian transmission of resistance by female parents.