Warm-up: A case study on maximal oxygen consumption as it relates to acute stretching
Languages of publication
The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretches on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Ten physically active men (mean ± SD, 23.80 ± 1.54 years, 70.60 ± 9.70 kg, 1.74.60 ± 5.23 m), who were healthy students volunteered to take part in the study. The participants were subjected to Static and PNF stretching exercises. After the interventions, the Bruce treadmill protocol was applied to measure VO2 max values. The expired gases were collected and analyzed continuously using the Cortex Metalyzer II. Analysis of variance showed significant main effects for interventions (F(2,18)=10.74, p<.05) on VO2 max. The main result of this study showed that both static and PNF stretching exercises improved VO2 max values.
1 - 1 - 2008
24 - 10 - 2008
- Andzel V. D. (1982) One mile run performance as a function of prior exercise. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 22 (1), 80-84.
- Bandy W. D., Irion J. M. (1994) The effect of time on static stretch on the flexibility of hamstring muscles. Physical Therapy 7 (9), 845-852.
- Bangsbo J. (2000) Muscle oxygen uptake in humans at onset of and during intense exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 168 (4), 457-464.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Billat V. L., Hill D. W., Pinoteau J., Petit B., Koralsztein J. P. (1996) Effects of protocol on determination of velocity at VO2 Max and on its time to exhaustion. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 104 (3), 313-321.[Crossref]
- Bishop D., Bonetti D., Dawson B. (2001) The effect of three different warm-up intensities on kayak ergometer performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 33 (6), 1026-1032.[Crossref]
- Cornwell A., Arnold G. N., Sidaway B. (2002) Acute effects of stretching on the neuromechanical properties of the triceps surae muscle complex. European Journal of Applied Physiology 86, 428-434.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Church J. B., Wiggins M. S., Moode F. M., Crist R. (2001) Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatment on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 15(3), 332-336.
- Etnyre B. R., Abraham L. D. (1986) H-reflex changes during static stretching and two variations of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Electroencephalogr Clinical Neurophysiology 63, 174-179.[Crossref]
- Feland J. B., Myrer J. W., Merrill M. (2001) Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes. Physical Therapy in Sport 2, 186-193.[Crossref]
- Fowles J., Sale D., MacDougall J. (2000) Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human planter flexors. Journal of Apllied Physiology 89, 1179-1188.
- Genovely H., Stamford B. A. (1982) Effects of prolonged warm-up exercise above and below anaerobic threshold on maximal performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48 (3), 323-330.[Crossref]
- Godges J., MacRae H., Longdon C. et al. (1989) The effects of two stretching procedures on hip range of motion and gait econmy. Journal of Orthopeadic and Sports Physical Therapy 10 (9), 350-357.
- Gray S., Nimmo M. (2001) Effects of active, passive or no warm- up on metabolism and performance during high-intensity exercise. Journal of Sports Science 19 (9), 693-700.[Crossref]
- Guidetti L., Emerenziani G. P., Galllotta m. C., Baldari C. (2007) Effects of warm-up on energy cost and energy sources of ballet dance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 99, 275-281.[Crossref]
- Guissard N., Duchateau J. (2004) Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar-flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 29, 248-55.[PubMed][Crossref]
- Halbertsma J. P. K, van Bolhius A. I., Goeken L. N. H. (1996) Sport stretching: Effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings. Archives Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 77, 688-692.[Crossref]
- Holcomb W. R. (2002) Stretching Using PNF American College of Sports Medicine
- Ingjer F., Stromme S. B. (1978) Effect of active, passive or no warm-up on the physiological response to heavy exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 40(4), 273-282.
- Magnusson P., Renstrom P. (2006) The European College of Sports Science Position statement: The role of stretching exercise in sports. European Journal of Sports Science, 6 (2), 87-91.[Crossref]
- Magnusson S. P., Simonsen E. B., Aagaard P., Gleim G. W., McHugh M. P., Kjaer M. (1995) Viscoelastic response to repeated static stretching in the human hamstring muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 5, 342-347.
- McNair P., Stanley S. (1996) Effect of passive stretching and jogging on the series muscle stiffness and range of motion of ankle joint. British Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 313-318.[Crossref][PubMed]
- McNeal J. R., Sands W. A., (2003) Acute Static stretching reduces lower extremity power in trained children. Pediatrics Exercise Science 15, 139-145.
- Maud P. J., Foster C. (1995) Physiological Assessment of Human Fitness. Human Kinetics., Champaign, IL.
- Moore, MA, Hutton, RS. (1980) Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12, 322-329.[Crossref]
- Power, K, Behm D., Cahill F., Carroll M., Young W. (2004) An acute bout of static stretching: effects on force and jumping performance. Medicine & Science Sports Exercise 36 (8), 1389-1396.
- Prentice, WE. (1983) A comparison of static stretching and PNF stretching for improving hip joint flexibility. Athletic Training 18, 56-59.
- Robergs R., Pascoe D. D., Costill D. L., Fink W. J., Chwalbinska- Moneta J., Davis J. A., Hichner R. (1991) Effects of warm -up on muscle glycogenolysis during intense exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 23, 37-43.
- Stewart I. B., Sleivert G. B. (1998) The effect of warm-up intensity on range of motion and anaerobic performance. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 27(2), 154-161.[Crossref]
- Takizawa K., Ishii K. (2006) relationship between muscle oxygen VO2 and high intensity aerobic exercise performance improving effect of warm-up. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol. 12 (4) 127-133.
- Teubes N. M., Coetsee M. F., Buys F. J. (1992) Aerobic energy supply: the influence of intensity and duration of warm-up and training status on the adaptability of the oxygen supply systems. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education & Recreation. 15 (2), 41-48.
- Wallmann, HW., Mercer J. A, McWhorter J. W. (2005) Surface electromyographic assessment of the effect of static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 19 (3), 684-688.
- Vella C. A., Marks D., Rogers R. A. (2006) Oxygen cost of ventilation during incremental exercise to VO2 max. Respirology 11 (2), 175-181.[Crossref][PubMed]
Publication order reference