Water is one of the most valuable substances in the world and its availability in the form of potable and drinking water is of great importance for any society. Conventional water treatment methods have been reported to be ineffective in removing some kinds of organic pollutants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), personal care products (PCP), pharmaceuticals, etc. Nanotechnology - especially application of the carbon based nanomaterials (CNMs) to water decontamination - is promising technology. The physico-chemical properties of CNMs (e.g. high surface area to volume ratio, high equilibrium rate) make them an excellent adsorbent which can be effectively used to remove pollutants from water. The present mini-review provides an overview of the research progress about organic chemical adsorption on CNMs in relation to water decontamination. The paper also discussed the possible risk related with desorption pharmaceuticals from CNMs.