Identifying the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism is a recommendation for the surgical treatment. To streamline the surgical treatment there are applied before- and intra-operative methods of location of parathyroid glands.The aim of the study was to assess an effectiveness and benefits of intra-operative colouring of parathyroid glands with methylene blue.Material and methods. In the Department of General and Endocrinological Surgery, Medical University in Poznań in the years 2000-2005 116 patients with hyperparathyroidism (61 with primary and 55 secondary hyperparathyroidism) were operated. At 82 patients a method of indicating patathyroid glands with methylene blue was applied. At all patients there were assesed a duration of the operation, the number of prepared parathyroid glands, and the number of the histopatological tests necessary for their identification, as well as procedures during which thyroid gland were additionally operated. There were compared methods of before- and intra-operative location of the glands.Results. After a statistical analysis of gathered material there was stated characteristic statistically difference of shortening the duration of operation in the group with colouring in comparison to the group without colouring. There were also reduced amount of intra-operative tests needed for identification of removed glands. The method is considered as significantly streamlining the operation. Limitation of the duration of the treatment reduced the perioperative injury, shortened the period of the hospitalization, and consequently reduced costs of the treatment. Colouring method showed itself to be the most effective method of the location of parathyroid glands. The majority of preoperative methods concerns only ectopic glands.Conclusions. Colouring with methylene blue is a method facilitating identifications of parathyroid glands in the operative field, shortening the duration of the treatment and at the same time safe, cheap and readily available.