Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a high-incident disease, which diagnosis of and treatments are clinical priority. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging; echocardiography and the biochemical parameters that can help us differentiate between the post-ischemic and non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Materials and methods. The study enrolled 134 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: 74 with the post-ischemic form and 60 with the non-ischemic one. All patients underwent a coronary imaging test, with echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance and a blood test. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated using Luminex kit. Data was compared between the two groups. Results. Echocardiography allowed recognition of Left Ventricular Non Compaction in 2 patients. Longitudinal and circumferential strains were significantly different in the two groups (p<0.05). Using CMR imaging a post-myocarditis scar was diagnosed in 2 patients and a post-ischemic scar in 95% of patients with the chronic ischemic disease. The interleukin IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were higher in the post-ischemic group compared with the non-ischemic one. Conclusions. The use of second level techniques with a high sensitivity and specificity would help distinguish among different sub-forms of dilated cardiomyopathy.