Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2008 | 3 | 2 | 215-220

Article title

Successful management of mild atopic dermatitis in adults with probiotics and emollients


Title variants

Languages of publication



Atopic dermatitis is characterized by impaired skin and mucous membrane barrier function. Measures improving barrier integrity decrease the influence of environmental factors that might exacerbate inflammation. Ten adult patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis consumed for three months fermented with potent antioxidative probiotic, L. fermentum ME-3 (DSM 14241) goat milk 200 mg/day. A control group consisted of six patients, not supplemented by probiotic. All patients used emollients regularly. Skin iron levels, glutathione redox ratios (GSSG/GSH), diene conjugate (DC) amounts, blood glutathione status, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and total antioxidativity was measured at the baseline and after three months. A significant decrease in skin iron levels, DC amounts, and glutathione redox ratio occurred in the probiotic-supplemented group compared to the control group (P < 0.05 for all indices). In the same group, blood levels of oxLDL decreased (p < 0.05), and GSH levels increased (P < 0.001) with concomitant improvement in the GSSG/GSH ratio. Blood antioxidativity markers also showed an improvement. The results of our study demonstrate that regular use of probiotics with antioxidative properties coupled with the use of lipid-containing emollients considerably decreases inflammation and concomitant oxidative stress in adult patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. This effect was observed both in the skin and in the blood.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2008
9 - 4 - 2008


  • Clinic of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Clinic of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia
  • Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50417, Tartu, Estonia


  • [1] Proksch E., Fölster-Holst R., Jensen J-M., Skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation and differentiation in eczema, J. Dermatol. Sci., 2006, 43, 159–169 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.06.003[Crossref]
  • [2] Leung D.Y.M., Boguniewicz M., Howell M.D., Nomura I., Hamid Q. A., New insights into atopic dermatitis, J. Clin. Invest., 2004, 113, 651–7
  • [3] Isolauri E., Probiotics in human disease, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2001, 73, 1142S–6S
  • [4] Cork M.J., Robinson D.A., Vasilopoulos Y., Ferguson A., Moustafa M., MacGowan A., et al., New perspectives on epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis: gene-environment interactions, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2006, 118, 3–21 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2006.04.042[Crossref]
  • [5] Isolauri E., Arvola T., Sütas Y., Moilanen E., Salminen S., Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema, Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2000, 30, 1604–10 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00943.x[Crossref]
  • [6] Rosenfeldt V., Benfeldt E., Nielsen D.M., Michaelsen K.F., Jeppesen D.L., Valerius N.H., et al., Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2003, 111, 389–95 http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2003.389[Crossref]
  • [7] Weston S., Halbert A., Richmond P., Prescott S. L., Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial, Arch. Dis. Child, 2005, 90, 892–897 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2004.060673[Crossref]
  • [8] Prescott S.L., Björksten B., Probiotics for the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2007, 120, 255–262 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2007.04.027[Crossref]
  • [9] Peuhkuri K., Lähteenmäki T., Sievi E., Saxelin M., Vapaatalo H., Korpela R., Antioxidative properties of lactobacillus GG measured as prostacyclin and nitric oxide production in endothelial cell culture, Nutr. Today, 1996, 31, 53S–54S http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00017285-199611001-00012[Crossref]
  • [10] Kullisaar T., Zilmer M., Mikelsaar M., Vihalemm T., Annuk H., Kairane C., et al., Two antioxidative lactobacilli strains as promising probiotics, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2002, 72, 215–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00674-2[Crossref]
  • [11] Kullisaar T., Songisepp E., Mikelsaar M., Zilmer K., Vihalemm T., Zilmer M., Antioxidative probiotic fermented goats’ milk decreases oxidative stressmediated atherogenicity in human subjects, Br. J. Nutr., 2003, 90, 449–56 http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003896[Crossref]
  • [12] Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index. Consensus report of the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis, Dermatology, 1993, 186, 23–31
  • [13] Ristimäe T., Zilmer M., Zilmer K., Kairane C., Kullisaar T., Teesalu, R., Effects of low dose aspirin on the markers of oxidative stress, Cardiovasc. Drug Ther., 1999, 13, 485–490 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007867402152[Crossref]
  • [14] Griffith O.W., Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine, Anal. Biochem., 1980, 106, 207–12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(80)90139-6[Crossref]
  • [15] Kohen R., Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress - new approaches for their evaluation, Biomed. Pharmacother., 1999, 53, 181–92 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(99)80087-0[Crossref]
  • [16] Young I.S., Woodside J.V., Antioxidants in health and disease, J. Clin. Pathol., 2001, 54, 176–86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.54.3.176[Crossref]
  • [17] Luyer M.D., Buurman W.A., Hadfoune M., Speelmans G., Knol J., Jakobs J.A., et al., Strainspecific effects of probiotics on gut barrier integrity following hemorrhagic shock, Infect. Immun., 2005, 73, 3686–3692 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.6.3686-3692.2005[Crossref]
  • [18] Murch S.H., Probiotics as mainstream allergy therapy?, Arch. Dis. Child, 2005, 90, 881–882 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.073114[Crossref]
  • [19] Ouwehand A., Isolauri E., Salminen S., The role of intestinal microflora for the development of the immune system in early childhood, Eur. J. Nutr., 2002, 41 (suppl 1), 1/32–1/37 [Crossref]
  • [20] Rachmilewitz D., Karmeli F., Shteingart S., Lee J., Takabayashi K., Raz E., Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides inhibit colonic proinflammatory cytokine production in ulcerative colitis, Inflamm. Bowel Dis., 2006, 12, 339–345 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000217335.30689.77[Crossref]
  • [21] Memon R.A., Staprans I., Noor M., Holleran W.M., Uchida Y., Moser A.H., et al., Infection and inflammation induce LDL oxidation in vivo, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2000, 20, 1536–42 [Crossref]
  • [22] Leveque N., Robin S., Muret P., Mac-Mary S., Makki S., Humbert P., High iron and ascorbic acid concentrations in the dermis of atopic dermatitis patients, Dermatology, 2003, 207, 261–264 http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000073087[Crossref]
  • [23] Pastore A., Federici G., Bertini E., Piemonte F., Analysis of glutathione: implication in redox and detoxification, Clin. Chim. Acta, 2003, 333, 19–39 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(03)00200-6[Crossref]
  • [24] Hall A.G., The role of glutathione in the regulation of apoptosis, Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 1999, 29, 238–245 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2362.1999.00447.x[Crossref]
  • [25] Kaur S., Zilmer M., Eisen M., Kullisaar T., Rehema A., Vihalemm T., Patients with allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are characterized by striking change of iron and oxidized glutathione status in nonlesional area of the skin, J. Invest. Dermatol., 2001, 116, 886–90 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01374.x[Crossref]
  • [26] Rhie G., Shin M.H., Seo J.Y., Choi W.W., Cho K.H., Kim K.H., et al., Aging-and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo, J. Invest. Dermatol., 2001, 117, 1212–1217 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01469.x[Crossref]
  • [27] Nogués M.R., Giralt M., Cervelló I., Del Castillo D., Espeso O., Argany N., et al., Parameters related to oxygen free radicals in human skin: a study comparing healthy epidermis and skin cancer tissue, J. Invest. Dermatol., 2002, 119, 645–652 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.00077.x[Crossref]
  • [28] Bengtsson Å, Lundberg M., Avila-Carino J., Jacobsson G., Holmgren A., Scheynius A., Thiols decrease cytokine levels and down-regulate the expression of CG30 on human allergen-specific T helper (Th) 0 and Th2 cells, Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2001, 123, 350–360 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01453.x

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.