Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 42 | 1 | 245-257

Article title

Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention









Physical description


1 - 10 - 2014
10 - 10 - 2014


  • SpertLab, Sport and Health Department, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon
  • SpertLab, Sport and Health Department, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon


  • Abernethy B, Baker J, Côté J. Transfer of pattern recall skills may contribute to the development of sport expertise. Appl. Cognit. Psychol, 2005; 19: 705-718
  • Araújo D, Davids K, Passos P. Ecological validity, representative design, and correspondence between experimental task constraints and behavioral setting: Comment on Rogers, Kadar, and Costall (2005). Ecol Psychol, 2007; 19(1): 69-78
  • Brymer E, Downey G, Gray T. Extreme sports as a precursor to environmental sustainability. J Sport & Tourism, 2009; 14(2-3): 193-204
  • Brymer E, Renshaw I. An introduction to the constraints-led approach to learning in outdoor education. Aust J of Outdoor Education, 2010; 14(2): 33-41
  • Butt T, Russell P. Surf science. An introduction to waves for surfing. Cornwall: Alison Hodge, 33-85; 2002
  • Carr G. Mechanics of sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 88-128; 1997
  • Chow J, Knudson D. Use of deterministic models in sports and exercise biomechanics research. Sports Biomechanics, 2011; 10(3): 219-233[WoS][Crossref]
  • Culver D, Gilbert W, Trudel P. A decade of qualitative research in sport psychology journals: 1990-1999. Sport Psychol, 2003; 17: 1-15
  • Davis WE, Burton AW. Ecological task analysis: translating movement behavior theory into practice. Adapt Phys Act Q, 1991; 8: 154-177
  • Denzin N, Lincoln Y. Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage publications, Inc., 1-32; 2000
  • Everline C. Shortboard performance surfing: a qualitative assessment of maneuvers and a sample periodized strength and conditioning program in and out of the water. Strength Conditioning J, 2007; 29(3): 32-40
  • Fleishman E, Quaintance M. Taxonomies of human performance. The description of human tasks. Orlando: Academic Press Inc., 90-150; 1984
  • Griffin P, Templin TJ. An overview of qualitative research. In PW Darst, DB Zakrajsek, VH Mancini (Eds.), Analyzing physical education and sport instruction (2nd Ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, 399-409; 1989
  • Gudimetla P, Kelson N, El-Atm B. Analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of three- and four-fin surfboards using computational fluid dynamics. Aust J Mech Eng, 2009; 7(1): 61-67
  • Handford C, Davids K, Bennett S, Button C. Skill acquisition in sport: Some applications of an evolving practice ecology. J Sport Sci, 1997; 15: 621-640[Crossref]
  • Hughes M, Bartlett R. The use of performance indicators in performance analysis. J Sport Sci, 2002; 20: 739-754[Crossref]
  • Kirwan B, Ainsworth L. A guide to task analysis. London: Taylor & Francis, 1-58; 2001
  • Lees A. Technique analysis in sports: A critical review. J Sport Sci, 2002; 20: 813-828[Crossref]
  • Lobato J. Alternative Perspectives on the Transfer of Learning: History, Issues, and Challenges for Future Research. J Learn Sci, 2006; 15(4): 431-449[Crossref]
  • Lowdon B. The somatotype of international surfboard riders. Aust J Sports Med, 1980; 12(2): 30-33
  • Lowdon B, Pateman N. Physiological parameters of international surfers. Aust J Sports Med, 1980; 12(2): 34-39
  • Mead S, Black K. Field studies leading to the bathymetric classification of world-class surfing breaks. In K Black (Ed.), Natural and artificial reefs for surfing and coastal protection. J Coastal Res, Special Issue, 2001a; 29: 5-20
  • Mead S, Black K. Functional component combinations controlling surfing quality at world-class surfing breaks. In K Black (Ed.), Natural and Artificial Reefs for Surfing and Coastal Protection. J Coastal Res, Special Issue, 2001b; 29: 21-32
  • Mead S, Black K. Predicting the breaker intensity of surfing waves. In K Black (Ed.), Natural and Artificial Reefs for Surfing and Coastal Protection. J Coastal Res, Special Issue, 2001c; 29: 51-6
  • Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Physiological Aspects of Surfboard Riding Performance. Sports Med, 2005; 35(1): 55-70[Crossref]
  • Muller E, Bartlett R, Raschner C, Schwameder H, Benko-Bernwick U, Lindinger S. Comparisons of the ski turn techniques of experienced and intermediate skiers. J Sport Sci, 1998; 16, 6: 545-559[Crossref]
  • Patrick J. Training: Research and practice. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press, 131-204; 1992
  • Pinder R, Davids K, Renshaw I, Araújo D. Representative learning design and functionality of research and practice in sport. J Sport Exercise Psychol, 2011; 33: 146-155
  • Renshaw I, Chow JY, Davids K, Hammond J. A constraints-led perspective to understanding skill acquisition and game play: a basis for integration of motor learning theory and physical education praxis? Phys Educ Sport Pedagogy, 2010; 15(2): 117-137[WoS][Crossref]
  • Tchórzewski D, Bujas P, Jankowicz-Szymańska A. Body posture stability in ski boots under conditions of unstable supporting surface. J Hum Kinetics, 2013; 38: 33-44
  • Thomas JR, Nelson JK. Research methods in physical activity (3rd Ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, 313-383; 1996
  • Tomlinson J. The ultimate encyclopedia of extreme sports. London: Carlton Books Limited; 1996
  • Vickers J. Instructional design for teaching physical activities. A knowledge structures approach. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, 25-51; 1990

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.