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2013 | 37 | 1 | 161-171

Article title

Changes in Selected Parameters of Swimming Technique in the Back Crawl and the Front Crawl in Young Novice Swimmers


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The study aimed to examine changes in selected angular characteristics and duration of the stroke cycle in the back crawl and the front crawl in children learning to swim. Nine boys and two girls, aged 8-13 years, performed seven consecutive swimming tests. The children’s movement technique was recorded with the use of three video cameras. The studied parameters included the angle of incidence between the trunk long axis and the waterline, elbow angle, shoulders roll, stroke cycle duration and stroke length. The results illustrate the development of swimming technique in youth swimmers. The results of the present study indicate the variability and phasing of learning of swimming technique by children.









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1 - 06 - 2013
05 - 07 - 2013


  • Academy of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
  • Academy of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
  • Academy of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
  • Academy of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
  • Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland, Department Physiotherapy, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Phone: +48 501 645 050


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