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2003 | 1 | 1 | 28-34

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Toxicological evaluation of exposed SPMD membranes


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This article is focused on bioassay evaluation of exposed SPMDs. Toxicity testing of SPMD extract is a suitable complementary parameter to chemical analysis. Vtox as an integrative parameter describing toxic properties of extract from membrane and thus a level of contamination of assessed ambient is presented here. Two examples of practical use of Vtox is demonstrated: a course of toxicity throw wastewater treatment plant with industrial inlets and increase of toxicity in surface water body caused by leakages of POPs from industrial plant.











Physical description


1 - 3 - 2003
1 - 3 - 2003


  • Department of Environmental Chemistry, ICT, 166 28, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Department of Environmental Chemistry, ICT, 166 28, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Department of Environmental Chemistry, ICT, 166 28, Prague, Czech Republic


  • [1] J.N. Huckins, G.K. Manuweera, J.D. Petty, D. Mackay, J.A. Lebo: “Lipid-Containing Semipermeable Membrane Devices for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in Water”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 27, (1993), pp. 2489–2496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es00048a028[Crossref]
  • [2] J.N. Huckins, J.D. Petty, C.E. Orazio, J.A. Lebo, R.C. Clark, V.L. Gibson, W.R. Gala, K.R. Echols: “Determination of Uptake Kinetics (Sampling Rates) by Lipid-Containing Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 33, (1999), pp. 3918–3923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es990440u[Crossref]
  • [3] J.N. Huckins, J.D. Petty, H.F. Prest, R.C. Clark, D.A. Alvarez, C.E. Orazio, J.A. Lebo, W.L. Cranor, B.T. Johnson: A guide for the use of Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as samplers of waterborne hydrophobic organic contaminants, Columbia Environmental Research Center, New Haven Road, Columbia, 2000.
  • [4] B.T. Johnson, J.N. Huckins, J.D. Petty, R.C. Clark: “Collection and detection of lipophilic chemical contaminants in water, sediment, soil, and air-SPMD-TOX”, Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 15, (2000), pp. 248–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-7278(2000)15:3<248::AID-TOX10>3.0.CO;2-Q[Crossref]
  • [5] V. Kočí, M. Mlejnek, T. Ocelka, L. Kochánková: “Application of algal bioassay for toxicity evaluation of SPMD”, Czech Phycology, Vol. 2, (2002), pp. 129–137.
  • [6] A. Kot, B. Zabiegala, J. Namiesenik: “Passive sampling for long-term monitoring of organic pollutants in water”, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 19, (2000), pp. 446–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00223-X[Crossref]
  • [7] J.D. Petty, C.E. Orazio, J.N. Huckins, R.W. Gale, J.A. Lebo, J.C. Meadows, K.R. Echos, W.L. Cranor: “Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants”, Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 879, (2000), pp. 83–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00315-0[Crossref]
  • [8] J.D. Petty, S.B. Jones, J.N. Huckins, W.L. Cranor, J.T. Parris, T.B. McTague, T.P. Boyle: “An approach for assessment of water quality using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and bioindicator tests”, Chemosphere, Vol. 41, (2000), pp. 311–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00499-3[Crossref]
  • [9] L. Pollumaa, A. Kahru, A. Eisentrager, R. Reiman, A. Maloveryan, A. Ratsep: “Toxicological Investigation of Soils with the Solid-phase Flash Assay: Comparison with Other Ecotoxicological Tests”, ATLA, Vol. 28, (2000), pp. 461–472.
  • [10] D. Sabaliũnas, J.R. Lazutka, I. Sabaliũniené: “Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of aquatic hydrophobic pollutants sampled with semipermeable membrane devices”, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 119, (2000), pp. 251–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00259-6[Crossref]
  • [11] D. Sabaliũnas and A. Sodergren: “Use of semi-permeable membrane devices to monitor pollutants in water and assess their effects: A laboratory test and field verification”, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 96, (1997), pp. 195–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00021-3[Crossref]

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