The Raman spectroscopy method was used for structural characterization of TiO2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on fused silica and single-crystal silicon and sapphire substrates. Using ALD, anatase thin films were grown on silica and silicon substrates at temperatures 125–425 °C. At higher deposition temperatures, mixed anatase and rutile phases grew on these substrates. Post-growth annealing resulted in anatase-to-rutile phase transitions at 750 °C in the case of pure anatase films. The films that contained chlorine residues and were amorphous in their as-grown stage transformed into anatase phase at 400 °C and retained this phase even after annealing at 900 °C. On single crystal sapphire substrates, phase-pure rutile films were obtained by ALD at 425 °C and higher temperatures without additional annealing. Thin films that predominantly contained brookite phase were grown by PLD on silica substrates using rutile as a starting material.