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2016 | 16 | 66 | 304–316
Article title

Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part II

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Title variants
PL
Fizjologiczne podstawy oceny mechaniki mięśnia serca przy użyciu techniki śledzenia markerów akustycznych 2D. Część II
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Abstracts
EN
In this paper, the authors attempt to concisely present the anatomical and pathophysiological bases as well as the principles for echocardiographic evaluation of mechanical aspects of cardiac function based on speckle tracking method. This technique uses a phenomenon involving the formation of characteristic image units, referred to as speckles or acoustic markers, which are stable during cardiac cycle, on a two-dimensional echocardiographic picture. Changes in the position of these speckles throughout the cardiac cycle, which are monitored and analyzed semi-automatically by a computer system, reflect deformation of both, cardiac ventricle as a whole as well as its individual anatomical segments. The values of strain and the strain rate, as well as the range and velocity of the movement of these markers, which are in close relationship with multiple hemodynamic parameters, can be visualized as various types of charts – linear, two- and three-dimensional – as well as numerical values, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the methodology of speckle-tracking echocardiography, the characteristic abnormalities of cardiac mechanics presenting in different clinical entities, and the limitations related to given clinical and technical issues.
PL
W niniejszej pracy autorzy podejmują próbę zwięzłego przedstawienia anatomicznych i patofizjologicznych podstaw oraz zasad echokardiograficznej oceny mechanicznych aspektów pracy serca w oparciu o metodę śledzenia markerów akustycznych. Metoda ta wykorzystuje zjawisko powstawania w dwuwymiarowym obrazie echokardiograficznym charakterystycznych, niezmieniających się w czasie jednostek obrazowych, określanych mianem plamek lub markerów akustycznych. Zmiany położenia plamek, obserwowane i analizowane półautomatycznie w trakcie całego cyklu serca przez system komputerowy, odzwierciedlają odkształcenie zarówno całej komory, jak i jej poszczególnych segmentów anatomicznych. Wartości odkształcenia, tempa odkształcenia oraz zakresu i prędkości ruchu markerów, pozostające w ścisłym związku z różnorodnymi parametrami hemodynamicznymi, mogą być prezentowane graficznie jako różnego rodzaju wykresy (liniowe, dwu- i trójwymiarowe) oraz wartości liczbowe, co umożliwia pogłębiony wgląd w mechaniczne i hemodynamiczne aspekty funkcji serca w stanach zdrowia i choroby. Wykorzystanie informacji płynących ze śledzenia markerów akustycznych umożliwia zrozumienie dotychczas niejasnych procesów fizjologicznych i patofizjologicznych. W pierwszej części pracy omówiono powstawanie ultrasonograficznego obrazu dwuwymiarowego i markerów akustycznych oraz techniczne aspekty analizy ich ruchu. W drugiej części przedstawiono bardziej szczegółowo metodykę badania za pomocą techniki śledzenia markerów akustycznych, omówiono charakterystyczne zaburzenia mechaniki mięśnia serca w różnych stanach klinicznych, a także wskazano ograniczenia metody spowodowane kwestiami technicznymi oraz problemami występującymi specyficznie w niektórych chorobach.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
16
Issue
66
Pages
304–316
Physical description
Contributors
  • Department of Cardiac and General Pediatric Surgery, Warsaw Medical University Independent Public Paediatric Clinical Hospital in Warsaw, Poland, madwoj1@onet.eu
  • Department of Cardiac and General Pediatric Surgery, Warsaw Medical University Independent Public Paediatric Clinical Hospital in Warsaw, Poland
References
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Document Type
review
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-fd94a59a-4551-4817-96e6-3494e217c99c
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