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2019 | 25 | 44-60
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Evaluation of Selected Physical and Chemical Soil Properties and their Management for Arable Crop Production in Southern Adamawa State

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Soil is essential for food production, and there is need practice sustainable soil management. This study was aimed to evaluate physical and chemical properties of soils and their management in three farming communities; Sangasumi (SGS), Gangkoen (GGK) and Gangbuen (GGB) of Southern Adamawa State, Nigeria. The intent is to encourage optimum land use planning and increase the efficiency in the use of soil resources. In the work, a digital Terrain Model (DTM) was generated from the map of the study area, and three elevation ranges were identified; 660-780m - representing the upper-slope in SGS, 540-660m - representing the middle-slope in GGK and 420-540m - representing the lower-slope in GGB, respectively. Three slope positions were delineated using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and their coordinates were obtained by means of a Handheld Geographic Positioning System (GPS). Three profile pits were dug on each of the locations and soil samples were collected in each of the identified horizon of the pits. Standard laboratory procedures were then used to determine soil physical and chemical properties. Herein, results for particle size analysis indicated that the soils were predominantly sand, ranging between 51% to 91% across the pedons and %sand was positively correlated with bulk density. Moreover, soil pH in each sample was slightly acidic to neutral (6.1-6.5 to 6.6-7.3), while organic carbon and total nitrogen levels were low (<1%, <0.15%) and available phosphorus levels were medium (10-20ppm). In contrast, magnesium was high (>1), sodium recorded up to 0.60cmol/kg, potassium was also high (>0.3) and %base saturation were generally medium to high (50-80 to >80). Results suggest the soils have potentials for arable farming. However, soil erosion hazards had affected parts of the fields; this lead to reduction in soil fertility and crop yields. Addition of organic and inorganic fertilizers and control of soil erosion will greatly improve soil fertility losses and increase crop yields.
  • Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Taraba State University, Jalingo, P.M.B. 1167, Jalingo, Nigeria
  • Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture & Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Taraba State University, Jalingo, P.M.B. 1167, Jalingo, Nigeria
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