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2014 | 14 | 2 | 117-123
Article title

Aktualny model immunopatogenezy stwardnienia rozsianego – nowe możliwości terapeutyczne

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Title variants
EN
Current model of immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis – new therapeutic options
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EN PL
Abstracts
EN
The aetiology of multiple sclerosis remains incompletely understood. In patients occurs both demyelination, inflammation, axonal damage and oligodendrocytes degeneration. The changes affect both white and grey matter, and also has been shown in normal appearing grey and white matter. However, it is well established that the immune system directly participates in the destruction of myelin and nervous cells and numerous abnormalities on the cellular and humoral response both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid were found in multiple sclerosis patients. The mechanisms leading to damage of the central nervous system are multifactorial. T lymphocytes play the key role, but B lymphocytes, macrophages and microglial cells are also included. Moreover, neurotoxic agents and metabolic disorders may lead to a direct damage of the central nervous system. The paper presents results of recent studies on the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and the various stages leading to damage to the central nervous system are discussed: the role of the activation of lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells both in blood and in the central nervous system, pass through the blood–brain barrier, the role of T cells and their respective subpopulations (Th1, Th2, and Th17), the importance of B cells, antibodies and the complement system and the mechanisms of demyelination and axonal damage. At the same time are discussed how drugs used in multiple sclerosis therapy affect different stages of the multiple sclerosis aetiopathogenesis, taking into account also the drugs which are at the clinical trials.
PL
Etiologia stwardnienia rozsianego nadal nie została jednoznacznie wyjaśniona. U chorych występują: demielinizacja, odczyn zapalny, uszkodzenie aksonów i degeneracja oligodendrocytów. Zmiany dotyczą zarówno istoty białej, jak i szarej, ponadto wykazano, że również w pozornie niezmienionej istocie białej i szarej występuje rozlane uszkodzenie tkanek mózgu. Obecnie przyjmuje się autoimmunologiczny charakter schorzenia, na co wskazuje obecność u chorych licznych nieprawidłowości dotyczących reakcji komórkowych i humoralnych we krwi oraz w płynie mózgowo-rdzeniowym. Mechanizmy prowadzące do uszkodzenia struktur ośrodkowego układu nerwowego są wieloczynnikowe. Kluczową rolę odgrywają limfocyty T, ale włączone są także limfocyty B, komórki mikrogleju i makrofagi. Istotne jest znaczenie zależnych od demielinizacji czynników neurotoksycznych oraz zaburzeń metabolicznych, które mogą prowadzić do bezpośredniego uszkodzenia struktur ośrodkowego układu nerwowego. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki najnowszych badań dotyczących immunopatogenezy stwardnienia rozsianego. Opisano poszczególne etapy zaburzeń prowadzących do uszkodzenia ośrodkowego układu nerwowego: aktywację limfocytów i rolę komórek prezentujących antygen zarówno we krwi, jak i w obrębie ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, przejście przez barierę krew–mózg, funkcję limfocytów T i ich poszczególnych subpopulacji (Th1, Th2, Th17), znaczenie limfocytów B, przeciwciał i układu dopełniacza oraz demielinizację i mechanizmy uszkodzenia aksonów. Jednocześnie omówiono, jak na poszczególne etapy etiopatogenezy stwardnienia rozsianego wpływają leki stosowane w terapii choroby, uwzględniając również najnowsze preparaty będące na etapie badań klinicznych.
Discipline
Year
Volume
14
Issue
2
Pages
117-123
Physical description
References
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Document Type
article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-f98c24d7-a0d8-477c-8484-3e31673aefe5
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