THE EFFECTS OF THE COACH-ATHLETE WORKING ALLIANCE ON AFFECT AND BURNOUT AMONG HIGH LEVEL COACHES
Languages of publication
Research suggests that the numbers of coaches who are suffering from burnout symptoms are considerably high among coaches in elite sport. In this study, the authors explore the effects of the coach-athlete working alliance on positive- and negative affect and burnout in a group of high-level coaches. An online survey, consisting of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Version, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was completed by a sample of 299 coaches working with elite athletes or junior elite athletes. Data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling. The model explained 57% of the variance in cynicism, 32% of the variance in reduced sense of accomplishment and 26% of the variance in exhaustion. These effects mainly derived from positive affect and negative affect. However, working alliance showed a significant indirect effect on all three dimensions of burnot through the mediating variables positive affect and negative affect. These results are discussed in a cognitive activation-perspective.
- Arbuckle, J.L. (2014). Amos (Version 23.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago: IBM SPSS.
- Bahrick, A.S., Russell, R.K., Salmi, S.W. (1991). The effects of role induction on trainees’ perceptions of supervision. Journal of Counseling and Development, 434–438.
- Bandalos, D.L., Finney, S.J. (2001). Item parceling issues in structural equation modeling. In: G.A. Marcoulides, R.E. Schumacker (eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: New developments and techniques. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Benson, P.L., Scales, P.C., Hamilton, S.F., Sesma, A. (2006). Positive youth development: Theory, research, and applications. In: W. Damon, R.M. Lerner (eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 894–941). New York: John Wiley.
- Bentzen, M., Lemyre, P.N., Kenttä, G. (2015). Changes in motivation and burnout indices in high-performance coaches over the course of a competitive season. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28, 28–48. DOI: 10.1080/10413200.2015.1053160.
- Bordin, E.S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 252–260.
- Bordin, E. (1994). Theory and research on the therapeutic working alliance: New directions. In: A. Horvath, L. Greenberg (eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research and practice (pp. 13–37). New York: Wiley.
- Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guildford.
- Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge Academic.
- Cavanagh, M. (2006). Coaching from a systematic perspective: A complex adaptive conversation. In: D.R. Stober, A.M. Grant (eds.), Evidence based Coaching Handbook: putting best practices to work for your clients (pp. 313–354). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
- Côté, J., Gilbert, W.D. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4, 307–323.
- Corbière, M., Bisson, J., Lauzon, S., Ricard, N. (2006). Factorial validation of a French shortform of the Working Alliance Inventory. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15 (1), 36–45.
- Crawford, J.R, Henry, J.D. (2004). The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–265. DOI: 10.1348/ 0144665031752934.
- Fletcher, D., Scott, M. (2010). Psychological stress in sports coaches: A review of concepts, research, and practice. Journal of Sport Sciences, 28, 127–137.
- Frey, M. (2007). College coaches’ experiences with stress – “problem solvers” have problems too. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 38–57.
- Galtung, J. (1996). Peace by peaceful means. Oslo–London: Sage Publications and PRIO.
- Golembiewski, R.T., Munzenrider, R.F., Stevenson, J.G. (1986). Phases of burnout: developments in concepts and applications. New York: Praeger.
- Goodger, K., Gorely, T., Harwood, C., Lavallee, D. (2007). Burnout in sport: A systematic review. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 127–151.
- Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K. (2002). Overtraining, underrecovery, and burnout in sport. In: M. Kellman (ed.), Enhancing recovery: Preventing underperformance in athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Gustafsson, H., Kenttä, G., Hassmén, P. (2011). Athlete burnout: An integrated model and future research directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4, 3–24.
- Hamama, L., Ronen, T., Schachar, K., Rosenbaum, M. (2013). Links between stress, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction among teachers in special education schools. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14 (3), 731–751. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9352-4.
- Hanton, S., Fletcher, D., Coughlan, G. (2005). Stress in elite sports performers: A qualitative investigation of competition and organizational stressors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 10, 1129–1141.
- Hinde, R.A. (1997). Relationships: A dialectical perspective. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
- Hjälm, S., Kenttä, G., Hassmén, P., Gustafsson, H. (2007). Burnout among elite soccer coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30 (4), 415–427.
- Horvath, A., Greenberg, L. (1985). The development of the Working Alliance Inventory. In: L. Greenberg, W. Pinsoff (eds.), The psychotherapeutic process (pp. 333–355). New York: Guilford Press.
- Horvath, A.O., Greenberg, L.S. (1989). Development and validation of the Working Alliance Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 223–233.
- Hu, L., Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
- Jones, R.L. (2006). How can educational concepts inform sports coaching? In: R.L. Jones (ed.), The sports coach as educator: Reconceptualising sports coaching (pp. 3–13). London: Routledge.
- Jowett, S. (2003). When the honeymoon is over: A case study of a coach-athlete relationship in crisis. Sport Psychologist, 17, 444–460.
- Jowett, S. (2007) Interdependence analysis and the 3+1Cs in the coach-athlete relationship. In: S. Jowett, Lavallee (eds.), Social Psychology in Sport (pp. 3–14). Champaing, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Jowett, S. (2008). Moderators and mediators of the association between the coach-athlete relationship and physical self-concept. International Journal of Coaching Science, 2, 43–62.
- Jowett, S., Cockerill, I.M. (2002). Incompatibility in the coach–athlete relationship. In: I.M. Cockerill (ed.), Solutions in sport psychology (pp. 16–31). London: Thomson Learning.
- Jowett, S., Ntoumanis, N. (2004). The coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART – Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14, 245–257.
- Kahn, R.L., Byosiere, P.B. (1992). Stress in organizations. In: M.D. Dunnette, L.M Hugh (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 571–650). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
- Kelley, B.C. (1994). A model of stress and burnout in collegiate coaches: Effects of gender and time of season. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 48–58.
- Kroll, W., Gundersheim, J. (1982). Stress factors in coaching. Coaching Science Update, 23, 47–49.
- Lazarus, R.S., Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
- Landis, R.S., Beal, D.J., Tesluk, P.E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 186–207.
- Lee, R.T., Ashforth, B.E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123–133. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.123.
- Leiter, M.P., Maslach, C. (1988). The impact of interpersonal environment of burnout and organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 297–308. DOI: 10.1002/job.4030090402.
- Lundkvist, E., Stenling, A., Gustafsson, H., Hassmén, P. (2014). How to measure coach burnout: An evaluation of three burnout measures. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 18 (3), 209–226.
- Lyle, J. (2002). Sport coaching concepts: A framework for coaches’ behaviour. London: Routledge.
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. (1984). Burnout in organizational settings. In: S. Oskamp (ed.), Applied social psychology annual: Applications in organizational settings (pp. 133–153). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., Leiter, M.P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual (6th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.
- Maslach, C., Leiter, M.P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498–512. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498.
- Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 397–422.
- Moen, F. (2012): Subjective beliefs among coaches about how relational factors affect intrinsic motivation, responsibility and development in sport. Athletic Insight Journal, 3 (4), 219–235.
- Moen, F., Federici, R. (2013). Coaches’ coaching competence in relation to athletes’ perceived progress in elite sport. Journal of Education and Learning, 2 (1), 240–252.
- Moen, F., Federici, R. (2016). Can athlete-centered coaching stimulate need satisfaction and prevent athlete burnout? International Journal of Sport Management, 68.
- Moen, F., Federici, R., Abrahamsen, F. (2015). Examining possible relationships between self-determination and burnout among junior athletes in sport. The International Journal of Coaching Science, 9, 43–58.
- Moen, F., Federici, R., Klemetsen, H. (2013). Elite athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ coach competencies in nordic combined. The Journal of Excellence, 16, 62–73.
- Moen, F., Garland, K. (2012). Subjective beliefs among sport coaches about communication during practice. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, 3, 121–142.
- Moen, F., Sandstad, H. (2013). Subjective expectations among athletes about coaches in sport. Journal of Human Subjectivity, 11, 135–155.
- Moen, F., Verburg, E. (2012). Subjective beliefs among athletes about how relational factors affect intrinsic motivation, responsibility and development in sport. The International Journal of Coaching and Science, 6 (1), 81–100.
- Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Hays, K., Maynard, I.W. (2009). Stress in elite sports coaching: Identifying stressors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21 (4), 442–459.
- Poczwardowski, A., Barott, J.E., Henschen, K.P. (2002). The athlete and coach: Their relationship and its meaning. Results of an interpretive study. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33 (1), 116–140.
- Price, M.S., Weiss, M.R. (2000). Relationships among coach burnout, coach behaviors, and athletes’ psychological responses. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 391–409.
- Putnam, L.L, Poole, M.S. (1987). Conflict and negotiation. In: F.M. Jablin, L.L. Putnam, K.H. Roberts, L.W. Porter (eds), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 549–599). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Raedeke, T.D., Smith, A.L. (2009). The Athlete burnout questionnaire manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
- Raedeke, T.D., Warren, A.H., Granzyk, T.L. (2002). Coaching commitment and turnover: a comparison of current and former coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73 (1), 73–86.
- Reme, S.E., Eriksen, H.R., Ursin, H. (2008). Cognitive activation theory of stress – how are individual experiences mediated into biological systems? Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 6, 177–183.
- Richardsen, A.M., Martinussen, M. (2005). Factorial validity and consistency of the MBI-GS across occupational groups in Norway. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 289–297.
- Schaffran, P., Altfeld, S., Kellmann, M. (2016). Burnout in sport coaches: A review of correlates, measurement and intervention. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 67, 121–125.
- Schaufeli, W.B., Buunk, B.P. (2003). Burnout: An overview of 25 years of research and theorizing. In: M.J. Schabracq, J.A.M. Winnubst, C.L. Cooper (eds.), The handbook of Work and Health Psychology (pp. 383–425). Chichester: Wiley & Sons.
- Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P., Kalimo, R. (1995). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey: A self-report questionnaire to assess burnout at the workplace. In: M.P. Leiter (ed.), Extending the Burnout Construct: Reflecting Changing Career Paths. Symposium, APA/NIOSH conference, Work, Stress, and Health ’95: Creating a Healthier Workplace. Washington, DC.
- Schaufeli, W.B., Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice. A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis.
- Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P., Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. In: C. Maslach, S.E. Jackson, M.P. Leiter (eds.), Maslach Burnout Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
- Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon
- Taris, T.W., Le Blanc, P.M., Schaufeli, W.B., Schreurs, P.J.G. (2005). Are there causal relationships between the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory? A review and two longitudinal tests. Work Stress, 19, 238–255. DOI: 10.1080/02678370500270453.
- Tracey, T.J., Kokotovic, A.M. (1989). Factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 1, 207–210.
- Ursin, H., Eriksen, H.R. (2004). The cognitive activation theory of stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 567–592.
- Vargas-Tonsing, T.M., Guan, J. (2007). Athletes’ preferences for informational and emotional pre-game speech content. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 2 (2), 171–180.
- Wachsmuth, S., Jowett, S., Harwood, C.G. (2017). Conflict among athletes and their coaches: what is the theory and research so far? International Review Of Sport And Exercise Psychology, 10 (1), 84–107.
- Wall, J., Callister, R. (1995). Conflict and its management. Journal of Management, 21, 515–558.
- Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 346–353.
- Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
- Weinberg, R., Butt, J. (2014). Goal – setting and sport performance: research fi ndings and practical applications. In: A. Papaioannou, D. Hackfort (eds.), Routledge Companion to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Global Perspectives and Fundamental Concepts (pp. 343–355). London: Taylor & Francis.
Publication order reference