Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 86 | 2 | 67-133
Article title

A Treatise on Dragonflies (Order: Odonata, Class: Insecta) of rice ecosystems in Eastern India

Title variants
Languages of publication
This study highlights the 75 species of dragonfly fauna associated with rice ecosystems in eastern India out of which 15 species were regular and rest were sporadic. From the general taxonomic point of view all the species were grouped under 5 families of under order Odonata. Comparing different body parts the double branching keys were prepared for easy identification of 15 common dragonfly species recorded in rice ecosystems of West Bengal. Each key begins with a couplet (a pair of alternative) and each of which leads to another couplet. Finally the reader reaches the specific identity of species. Free hand drawing of wings of the 50 dragonflies were also used for separate identification of these insect species. In addition to this, different studies were made on courtship and mating, egg laying habitats, nymphal development, longevity, flight capacity of dragonfly to make the study more interesting to the reader. The population build up of dragonfly, favors to certain altitude as well as availability of water which is reverse to the other group of insects. Three different localities were selected at 9.75 m (Chakdaha), 200 m (Cooch Behar) and 1250 m (Kalimpong) of which former two represent an unique physiographic ecological system in Eastern India characterized by extreme diversities of dragonfly inhabiting there. The studies on natural enemies of dragonfly along with their major threats indicated that about 2, 4 and 4 species were critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable in rice ecosystem of West Bengal. Dragonflies are very sensitive to changes in landscape and are reliable indicators of wetland health. Therefore the effective conservation of dragonfly depends entirely on conservation of their habitats. Different studies were made to estimate the role of dragonfly in integrated pest management of rice crop in West Bengal. An investigation was also carried out to find out the crop stage wise diversification of individual predator and found that dragonfly was more diverse during flowering to ripening stages of crop respectively. The values Simpson and Shanon diversity index showed that dragonflies are specific flowering to ripening stage of crop. Subsequently the value of Margalef index and Menhinick index also indicated that the aforesaid predators were more diverse in flowering stage of crop whereas it was least in vegetative stage of crop. From the Hill's diversity the number of abundant and most abundant species was calculated where maximum and minimum were obtained from dragonfly and staphylinid respectively. The studies on colonization and succession of major dragonfly taxa in the rice field indicated that it followed a uniform pattern in relation to growth stages as well different phases in the rice field. The studies on relative abundance of dragonfly in different ecosystems reflected that their population in fields could be conserved and enhanced through maintenance of rice weed flora on bund or allowing ratoon rice after the rice crop during fallow period. The fallow land has limited effect on incidence of insect predator in rice crop. The relative ranking chart of 50 important predators in rice ecosystem of West Bengal indicates that the insect belonging to Coleopteran (17) were top of the list whereas dragonfly was third (10). The validity of chart may increase over time and they will need to be updated periodically.
Physical description
  • Department of Agricultural Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, P.O. Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, District Nadia, West Bengal, 741252, India
  • [1] Altieri, M.A. and Nicholls, C.I. (1999). Biodiversity ecosystem function and insect pest management in agricultural system, pp 69-84. In W.W. Collins and C.O. Qualset (eds). Biodiversity in agroecosystems CRC. Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • [2] Andrew R. J., Subramaniam K. A., Tiple A. D. (2008). A handbook on common odonates of Central India. South Asian Council of Odonatology, Nagpur, MH.
  • [3] Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. and Edirsinghe, J.P. (2008). Composition, structure and dynamics of arthropod communities in a rice ecosystem. Cey. J. Sci (Bio. Sci.) 37(1), 23-48.
  • [4] de Fonseka, T. (1997). A Guide to the Dragonflies of Sri Lanka. Printed and published by author, London, p. 229.
  • [5] Emiliyamma, K.G. Radhakrishnan, C. and Jafer, P.M. (2005). Common dragonfly and damselfly of Kerala, ZSI, p. 67.
  • [6] Fraser, F.C. (1933). The Fauna of British-India including Ceylon and Burma, odonata, vol. I. Taylor and Francis London.
  • [7] Fraser, F.C. (1934). The Fauna of British-India including Ceylon and Burma, odonata, vol. II. Taylor and Francis London.
  • [8] Fraser, F.C. (1936). The Fauna of British-India including Ceylon and Burma, odonata, vol.-II. Taylor and Francis London.
  • [9] Gangurde Sarwshri (2007). Above ground arthropod pest and predator diversity in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) production system of the Philippines. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 45 (1/2), 1-8.
  • [10] Haq, M. and Karim, A.N.M.R. (1991). Influence of ratoon rice on the abundance of rice insect pests and their natural enemies. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology 1, 77-82.
  • [11]
  • [12]
  • [13] Heong, K.L., Aquino, G.B. and Barrion, A.T. (1991). Arthropod community structures of rice ecosystems in the Philippines Bulletin of Entomological Research 81, 407-416.
  • [14] Kandibane, M., Raguraman, S. and Ganapathy, N. (2005). Relation abundance and diversity of odonata in irrigated rice field of Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Zoos' Print. Journal 20(11), 2051-2052.
  • [15] Little, R.C, Freund, R.J and Spector, P.S 1991 SAS (System for Linear Models), SAS institute in USA, p. 329.
  • [16] Ludwig, J.A. and Reynoids, J.F. (1988). Statistical ecology; a premier on methods and computing,4 S.A: Jhon wiley and sons, inc. p. 337.
  • [17] Magurran, A.E(1988) Ecological Diversity and its measurement. London :Croom Helm [A general book on ecological diversity. Model (for the distribution of species)] p. 269
  • [18] Matson, P.A., Cohen, W.J., Power, A.G. and Swift, M.J. (1997). Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277, 504-509.
  • [19] Mitra T. R. (2006). Handbook on common Indian Dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) ZSI. p. 136.
  • [20] Philip S.Corbet(1980). Biology of Odonata. Annual Review of Entomology 25, 189-217
  • [21] Prasad, M. and Varshney, R.K. (1995). A check list of the Odonata of India including date on larval studies. Oriental Insects 29, 385-428
  • [22] Rajan, S. and Chander, S. (2013). Predator diversity visa-vis. pest incidence in rice ecosystem. Indian J. Entomol. 75(2)104-108.
  • [23] Sathe, T.V. and Bhosale, Y.A. (2001). Insect pest predators. Daya Publishing House Delhi pp 163.
  • [24] Satpathi, C.R. and Sarkar. A (2009) Studies on daily movement of dragon flies on boro rice field in the plains of West Bengal Insect Environment 15 (3) 103-104
  • [25] Satpathi, C.R. (2010). Some observation on Dragonfly and Damselfly in rice field. Insect Environ 16 (2), 68
  • [26] Satpathi, C.R. (2010). Role of Dragon fly and Damselfly in integrated Pest Management of rice in eastern India. Insect Environ 16 (2). 69-71
  • [27] Satpathi, C.R. (2011). Effect of ecological variation on colour changes of dragon fly. Insect Environment 17 (2), 57-58
  • [28] Satpathi, C.R (2011). Probable effect of global warming on the dragonfly Orthetrum sabina sabina (Drury.) in eastern India. Insect Environment 16 (4), 158-159
  • [29] Satpathi, C.R (2011). Selection of different water bodies for egg laying of dragonflies in the plains of West Bengal. Insect Environment 17 (3) pp 142.
  • [30] Satpathi, C.R (2011). Nocturnal behavior of dragon and damselfly adults in rice field. Insect Environment 17 (3), 143.
  • [31] Schoenly, K., Cohen, J.E., Heong, K.L., Litsinger, J.A., Aquino, G.B., Barrion, A.T. and Arida, G. (1996). Food web dynamics of irrigated rice fields at five elevations in Luzon, Philippines. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86(4), 451-460
  • [32] Simpson, E.H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688.
  • [33] Southwood, T.R.E. (1978). Ecological methods with particular reference to the study of insect population. The English language book society and Chapman and Hall, p. 524
  • [34] Swift, M.J. and Anderson, J.M. (1994). Biodiversity and ecosystem function in agricultural systems pp. 15-41. In E.D. Schulze and H. A. Mooney (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer Berlin.
  • [35] Thorbek, P. and Bilde, T. (2004). Reduced number of generalist predator after crop management. Journal of Applied Ecology 41 (3), 526-538.
  • [36] Tiple, A.D., Khurad A. M., Andrew R. J. 2008. Species diversity of Odonata in and around Nagpur City, Central India. Fraseria 7, 41-45
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.