PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 8 | 1 | 23-32
Article title

Krwotok położniczy – zasady współpracy położnika i anestezjologa

Content
Title variants
EN
Obstetrical haemorrhage – the management algorithm
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Obstetrical haemorrhage still remains one of the most common causes of death among pregnant women and women in labour. Almost 88% of these women die within the first 4 hours of its onset. Knowing the mechanisms that regulate hemostasis of the woman in labour at the molecular, immunological, hormonal, neurological level and the role and function of the uteroplacental unit has a huge impact on the further therapeutic decisions in case of obstetrical haemorrhage. There are a number of various definitions concerning obstetrical haemorrhage which proves how difficult it is to recognize and diagnose this condition. Taking under consideration the haemodynamic changes, the systemic consequences and the need of making specific therapeutical decisions it seems necessary to include in the definition the dynamics of the blood loss in the specific time unit: cumulated blood loss of 150 ml/min or 1.5 ml/kg of body weight per minute and a 50% loss of circulating blood volume in 3 hours. The prognosis of the haemorrhage depends on many different elements, including: rapid diagnosis, notification and implement of the management therapeutic algorithm and interdisciplinary co‑work of various teams taking part in the diagnostic‑therapeutic process. It is crucial that there is an effective, simultaneous cooperation among the experienced anaesthesiology team, ob‑gyn team, the operating theatre team, diagnostic‑laboratory teams and the regional blood donation agencies. Coordinating work of that many people, that are often spread within the organizational structures of the hospital on different floors or buildings, is excessively challenging. On the other hand, establishing the management algorithm that takes into account the order and the way of notifying as well as implementing certain procedures in individual organizational structures has a huge, direct impact on patient’s survival and the quality of life. Most of the management procedures for the severe obstetrical haemorrhage, such as resuscitation, monitoring, bleeding control, should be performed simultaneously.
PL
Krwotok położniczy wciąż jest jedną z najczęstszych przyczyn zgonów ciężarnych i rodzących. Prawie 88% kobiet umiera w ciągu pierwszych czterech godzin od momentu jego wystąpienia. Znajomość mechanizmów regulujących homeostazę ustroju ciężarnej ma ogromne znaczenie w postępowaniu terapeutycznym w przypadku wystąpienia krwotoku okołoporodowego. O tym, jak trudno rozpoznać i zdefiniować krwotok położniczy, dowodzi obecność kilkunastu różnych jego definicji. Z punktu widzenia zmian hemodynamicznych, następstw ogólnoustrojowych i konieczności podjęcia określonych decyzji terapeutycznych bardzo użyteczne wydają się pojęcia oceniające szybkość utraty w określonym przedziale czasowym: skumulowana utrata krwi wynosząca 150 ml/min lub 1,5 ml/kg m.c./min oraz utrata 50% objętości krwi krążącej w ciągu 3 godzin. Rokowanie w krwotoku położniczym zależy od wielu elementów, do których zaliczamy: szybkie rozpoznanie, powiadomienie i wdrożenie algorytmu postępowania terapeutycznego oraz efektywne działanie interdyscyplinarne różnych zespołów biorących udział w procesie diagnostyczno‑leczniczym. Niezbędna jest jednoczasowa, efektywna współpraca doświadczonego zespołu anestezjologicznego, ginekologiczno‑położniczego, bloku operacyjnego, zespołów pracowni diagnostyczno‑laboratoryjnych oraz regionalnego centrum krwiodawstwa. Skoordynowanie pracy dużej liczby ludzi, często „rozrzuconych” w strukturach organizacyjnych szpitala na różnych piętrach lub w oddzielnych budynkach, jest niezmiernie trudne. Opracowanie algorytmu postępowania uwzględniającego kolejność i sposób powiadamiania oraz wdrażanie określonych procedur w poszczególnych jednostkach organizacyjnych decydują o przeżyciu pacjentki i późniejszej jakości życia. Większość czynności w ciężkim krwotoku położniczym (resuscytacja, monitorowanie, opanowywanie krwawienia) powinna być prowadzona jednoczasowo.
Discipline
Year
Volume
8
Issue
1
Pages
23-32
Physical description
References
  • 1. Confidential Enquiry in Maternal and Child Health. Saving Mothers’ Lives: a report of the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths; 2003-2005.
  • 2. Introduction. W: Lewis G. (red.): Why Mothers Die 2000-2002 Report. ROCG, London 2004: 1-24.
  • 3. Ramanathan G., Arulkumaran S.: Postpartum hemorrhage. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Can. 2006; 28: 967-973.
  • 4. World Health Organization: Technical working group: care in normal birth: a practical guide. Geneva 1996.
  • 5. Crochetiere C .: Obstetric emergencies . Anesthesiology Clin. N. Am. 2003; 21: 111-125.
  • 6. Chestnut D .: Obstetric Anesthesia . Principles and Practice. Mosby, 2004.
  • 7. Gorman S.R., Rosen M.A.: Anesthetic implications of maternal physiological changes during pregnancy. Seminars in Anesthesia, Perioperative Medicine and Pain 2000; 19: 1-9.
  • 8. Assali N. S . : Dynamics of the uteroplacental circulation in health and disease. Am. J. Perinatol. 1989; 6: 105-109.
  • 9. Miller R.D. (red.): Anesthesia. Wyd. 5, Churchill Livingston, Philadelphia 2000.
  • 10. Siu S.C., Colman J.M.: Heart disease and pregnancy. Heart 2001; 85: 710-715.
  • 11. Gerbasi F.R., Bottoms S., Farag A., Mammen E.: Increased intravascular coagulation associated with pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 1990; 75: 385-389.
  • 12. Greer I.A.: Haemostasis and thrombosis in pregnancy. W: Bloom A.L., Forbes C.D., Thomas D.P, Tuddenham E.G.D. (red.): Haemostasis and Thrombosis. Wyd. 3, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh 1994: 987-1015.
  • 13. World Health Organization: The Prevention and Management of Postpartum Haemorrhage . Report of a Technical Working Group, Geneva, 3-6 July, 1989. Unpublished document . WHO/ MCH/90 . 7 . World Health Organization, Geneva 1990.
  • 14. Baskett T.F. (red.): Complications of the third stage of labour. W: Essential Management of Obstetrical Emergencies, Wyd. 3, Clinical Press, Bristol, UK 1999: 196-201.
  • 15. American College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians: Quality Assurance in Obstetrics and Gynecology. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC 1989.
  • 16. Mousa H.A., Walkinshaw S.: Major postpartum haemorrhage. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 2001; 13: 595-603 .
  • 17. Macphail S., Talks K.: Massive post-partum haemorrhage and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Curr. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2004; 14: 123-131
  • 18. Fakhry S.M., Sheldon G.F.: Massive transfusion in the surgical patient. W: Jeffries L.C., Brecher M.E. (red.): Massive Transfusion . American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, MD 1994: 17-38.
  • 19. O’Riordan M.N., Higgins J.R.: Haemostasis in normal and abnormal pregnancy Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003; 17: 385-396.
  • 20. Sheiner E., Sarid L., Levy A. i wsp.: Obstetric risk factors and outcome of pregnancies complicated with early postpartum hemorrhage: a populationbased study J. Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005; 18: 149-154.
  • 21. Makhseed M., el-Tomi N., Moussa M.: A retrospective analysis of pathological placental implantation - site and penetration. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 1994; 47: 127-134.
  • 22. Zaki Z.M., Bahar A.M., Ali M.E. i wsp.: Risk factors and morbidity in patients with placenta previa accreta compared to placenta previa non-accreta. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 1998; 77: 391-394.
  • 23. Rouse D.J., Leindecker S., Landon M. i wsp.: The MFMU Cesarean Registry: uterine atony after primary cesarean delivery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2005; 193: 1056-1060
  • 24. Magann E.F., Evans S., Hutchinson M. i wsp.: Postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal birth: an analysis of risk factors. S. Med. J. 2005; 98: 419-422.
  • 25. Bais J.M., Eskes M., Pel M. i wsp.: Postpartum haemorrhage in nulliparous women: incidence and risk factors in low and high risk women . A Dutch population-based cohort study on standard (>500 ml) and severe (>1000 ml) postpartum haemorrhage . Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2004; 115: 166-172.
  • 26. Usha K.T., Hemmadi S., Bethel J., Evans J.: Outcome of pregnancy in a woman with an increased body mass index. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2005; 112: 768-772.
  • 27. Olesen A.W, Westergaard J.G., Olsen J.: Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery: a national register-based study, 1978-1993. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2003; 189: 222-227.
  • 28. Jolly M.C., Sebire N.J., Harris J.P i wsp.: Risk factors for macrosomia and its clinical consequences: a study of 350, 311 pregnancies. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2003; 111: 9-14.
  • 29. Magann E.F., Evans S., Chauhan S.P i wsp.: The length of the third stage of labor and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet. Gynecol. 2005; 105: 290-293.
  • 30. Ploeckinger B., Ulm M.R., Chalubinski K., Gruber W: Epidural anaesthesia in labour: influence on surgical delivery rates, intrapartum fever and blood loss. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 1995; 39: 24-27.
  • 31. Charbit B., Mandelbrot L., Samain E. i wsp.: The decrease of fibrinogen is an early predictor of the severity of postpartum hemorrhage J Thromb Hae-most. 2006; 5: 266-273.
  • 32. Huissoud C., Carrabin N., Audibert F. i wsp.: Bedside assessment of fibrinogen level in postpartum haemorrhage by thrombelastometry. BjOg 2009; 116: 1097-1102 .
  • 33. Glover P.: Blood loss at delivery: how accurate is your estimation? Aust. J. Midwifery 2003; 16: 21-24.
  • 34. Nelson G.H., Ashford C.B., Williamson R.: Method for calculating blood loss at vaginal delivery. South Med . J. 1981; 74: 550-552.
  • 35. Benedetti T.: Obstetric haemorrhage. W: Gabbe S.G., Niebyl J.R., Simpson J.L. (red.): A Pocket Companion to Obstetrics. Wyd. 4, Churchill Livingstone, New York 2002: Chapter 17 .
  • 36. Geller S.E., Patel A., Naik VA. i wsp.: Conducting collaborative research in developing nations. Int . J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 2004; 87: 267-271.
  • 37. Patel A., Goudar S.S., Geller S.E. i wsp.: Drape estimation versus visual assessment for estimating postpartum hemorrhage. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 2006; 93: 220-224
  • 38. El-Refaey H., Rodeck C.: Post partum haemorrhage: definitions, medical and surgical management. A time for change. Br. Med. Bull. 2003; 67: 205-217.
  • 39. Rossaint R., Cerny V, Coats T.J. i wsp.: Key issues in advanced bleeding care in trauma. Shock 2006; 26: 322-331
  • 40. Hofmeyr G.J., Mohlala B.K.F.: Hypovolaemic shock. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2001; 154: 645-662
  • 41. Hoyt D . B A clinical review of bleeding dilemmas in trauma. Semin. Hematol. 2004; 41: 40-43.
  • 42. Brohi K., Singh J., Heron M., Coats T.: Acute traumatic coagulopathy. J. Trauma 2003; 54: 1127-1130.
  • 43. MacLeod J.B., Lynn M., McKenney M.G. i wsp.: Early coagulopathy predicts mortality in trauma J Trauma 2003; 55: 39-44.
  • 44. Wojciechowski PJ., Samol N., Walker J.: Coagulopathy in massive transfusion. Int. Anesthesiol. Clin. 2005; 43: 1-20.
  • 45. Singbartl K., Innerhofer P., Radvan J. i wsp.: Hemostasis an hemodilution: a quantitative mathematical guide for clinical practice. Anesth. Analg. 2003; 96: 929-935.
  • 46. Erber WN.: Massive blood transfusion in the elective surgical setting. Transfus. Apheresis Sci. 2002; 27: 83-92.
  • 47. Gonzalez E.A., Moore F.A., Holcomb J. i wsp.: Fresh frozen plasma should be given earlier to patients requiring massive transfusion. J. Trauma 2007; 62: 112-119.
  • 48. O’Shaughnessy D.F., Atterbury C., Bolton Maggs P. i wsp.: Guidelines for the use of freshfrozen plasma, cry-oprecipitate and cryosupernatant. Br. J. Haematol. 2004; 126: 11-28.
  • 49. Borgman M.A., Spinella P.C., Perkins J.G. i wsp.: The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital. J. Trauma 2007; 63: 805-813.
  • 50. Fenger-Eriksen C., Anker-Moller E., Heslop J. i wsp.: Thrombelastographic whole blood clot formation after ex vivo addition of plasma substitutes: improvements of the induced coagulopathy with fibrinogen concentrate. Br. J. Anaesth. 2005; 94: 324-329.
  • 51. Bundgaard-Nielsen M., Holte K., Secher N.H., Kehlet H .: Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy Acta Anaesthesiol . Scand. 2007; 51: 331-340.
  • 52. Anderson J.M., Etches D.: Prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage. Am. Fam. Physician 2007; 75: 875-882.
  • 53. McDonald S., Prendiville WJ., Elbourne D.: Prophylactic syntometrine versus oxytocin for delivery of the placenta. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2000; (2): CD000201.
  • 54. Anderson J., Etches D., Smith D.: Postpartum haemorrhage. W: Damos J.R., Eisinger S.H. (red.): Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) provider course manual. American Academy of Family Physicians, Kansas 2000: 1-15.
  • 55. Macphail S., Talks K.: Massive post-partum haemorrhage and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Curr. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2004; 14: 123-131.
  • 56. Chandraharan E., Arulkumaran S.: Management algorithm for atonic postpartum haemorrhage . J. Paediatr. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2005; 31: 106-112.
  • 57. Vercauteren M., Palit R., Soetens F. i wsp.: Anaesthesiological considerations on tocolytic and uterotonic therapy in obstetrics. Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 2009; 53: 701-709.
  • 58. McDonald S., Abbott J.M., Higgins S.P.: Prophylactic ergometrine-oxytocin versus oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2004; (1): CD000201.
  • 59. Gϋlmezoglu A.M., Forna F., Villar J., Hofmeyr G.J.: Prostaglandins for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2004; (1): CD000494.
  • 60. Doumouchtsis S.K., Papageorghiou A.T., Arulkumaran S .: Systemic review of conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage: what to do when medical treatment fails. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 2007; 62: 540-547.
  • 61. Doumouchtsis S.K., Papageorghiou A.T., Vernier C., Arulkumaran S . : Management of postpartum hemorrhage by uterine balloon tamponade: prospective evaluation of effectiveness. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. 2008; 87: 849-855.
  • 62. Awonuga A.O., Merhi Z.O., Khulpateea N.: Abdominal packing for intractable obstetrical and gynecologic hemorrhage. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 2006; 93: 160-163.
  • 63. Spahn D.R., Cerny VC., Coates T.J. i wsp.: Management of bleeding following major trauma: a European guideline. Critical Care 2007; 11: 1-22.
  • 64. Vincent J.L., Dufaye P., Berre J. i wsp.: Serial lactate determinations during circulatory shock Crit Care Med 1983; 11: 449-451.
  • 65. Rutherford E.J., Morris J.A. Jr, Reed G.W., Hall K.S.: Base deficit stratifies mortality and determines therapy J. Trauma 1992; 33: 417-423.
  • 66. Wilson M., Davis D.P, Coimbra R.: Diagnosis and monitoring of hemorrhagic shock during the initial resuscitation of multiple trauma patients: a review J Emerg Med. 2003; 24: 413-422.
  • 67. Kwan I., Bunn F., Roberts I.: Timing and volume of fluid administration for patients with bleeding Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2003: CD002245.
  • 68. Malone D.L., Hess J.R., Fingerhut A.: Massive transfusion practices around the globe and a suggestion for a common massive transfusion protocol J Trauma 2006; 60: S91-S96.
  • 69. Vincent J.L., Baron J.F., Reinhart K. i wsp.: Anemia and blood transfusion in critically ill patients. JAMA 2002; 288: 1499-1507.
  • 70. Hess J.R., Holcomb J.B., Hoyt D.B.: Damage control resuscitation: the need for specific blood products to treat the coagulopathy of trauma. Transfusion 2006; 46: 685-686.
  • 71. Kirschenbaum L.A., Astiz M.E., Rackow E.C. i wsp.: Microvascular response in patients with cardiogenic shock. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 28: 1290-1294.
  • 72. Love E.M., Soldan K., Jones H.: Serious Hazards of Transfusion Annual Report 2000/2001.
  • 73. Lobo S.M., Salgado P.F., Castillo VG. i wsp.: Effects of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality in high-risk surgical patients. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 28: 3396-3404.
  • 74. Boura C., Caron A., Longrois D. i wsp.: Volume expansion with modified hemoglobin solution, colloids, or crystalloid after hemorrhagic shock in rabbits: effects in skeletal muscle oxygen pressure and use versus arterial blood velocity and resistance. Shock 2003; 19: 176-182.
  • 75. Fresh-Frozen Plasma, Cryoprecipitate, and Platelets Administration Practice Guidelines Development Task-force of the College of American Pathologists Practice parameter for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets. JAMA 1994; 271: 777-781.
  • 76. Gonzales E.A., Moore F.A., Holcomb J.B. i wsp.: Fresh frozen plasma should be given earlier to patients requiring massive transfusion. J. Trauma 2007; 62: 112-119.
  • 77. Fries D., Krismer A., Klingler A. i wsp.: Effect of fibrinogen on reversal of dilutional coagulopathy: a porcine model. Br. J. Anaesth. 2005; 95: 172-177.
  • 78. Fries D., Innerhofer P., Reif C. i wsp.: The effect of fibrinogen substitution on reversal of dilutional coagulopathy: an in vitro model. Anesth. Analg. 2006; 102: 347-351.
  • 79. Brohi K., Singh J., Heron M., Coates T: Acute traumatic coagulopathy. J. Trauma 2003; 54: 1127-1130.
  • 80. Hirshburg A., Dugas M., Banez E.I. i wsp.: Minimizing dilutional coagulopathy in exsanguinating hemorrhage: a computer model. J. Trauma 2003; 54454-54463.
  • 81. Dutton R.P., MacKenzie C.F., Scalea T.M.: Hypotensive resuscitation during active hemorrhage: impact on inhospital mortality. J. Trauma 2002; 52: 1141-1146.
  • 82. Levy J.H.: Massive transfusion coagulopathy. Semin. Hematol. 2006; 43 supl. 1: S59-S63.
  • 83. Friedman Z., Berkenstadt H., Preisman S., Perel A.: A comparison of lactated Ringer’s solution to hydroxyethyl starch 6% in a model of severe hemorrhagic shock and continuous bleeding in dogs. Anesth. Analg. 2003; 96: 39-45.
  • 84. Walsh S.R., Walsh C.J.: Intravenous fluid-associated morbidity in postoperative patients . Ann . R. Coll . Surg . Engl. 2005; 87: 126e30.
  • 85. Brummel-Ziedins K., Whelihan M.F., Ziedins E.G., Mann K.G.: The resuscitative fluid you choose may potentiate bleeding. J. Trauma 2006; 61: 1350-1358.
  • 86. Finfer S., Bellomo R., Boyce N. i wsp.: A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 350: 2247-2256.
  • 87. Perel P., Roberts I.: Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients . Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2007; (4): CD000567.
  • 88. Waters J.H., Gottlieb A., Schoenwald P. i wsp.: Normal saline versus lactated Ringer’s solution for intraoperative fluid management in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an outcome study. Anesth . Analg. 2001; 93: 817-822.
  • 89. Kozek-Langenecker S.A., Jungheinrich C., Sauermann W, Van der Linden P.: The effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (6%) on blood loss and use of blood products in major surgery: a pooled analysis of randomized clinical trials. Anesth. Analg. 2008; 107: 382-390.
  • 90. Westphal M., James M.F.M., Kozek-Langenecker S. i wsp.: Hydroxyethyl starches: different products - different effects. Anesthesiology 2009; 111: 187-202.
  • 91. Kozek-Langenecker S.: Effects of hydroxyethyl starch solutions on hemostasis. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 654-660.
  • 92. Mittermayr M., Streif W, Haas T i wsp.: Effects of colloid and crystalloid solutions on endogenous activation of fibrinolysis and resistance of polymerized fibrin to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator added ex vivo. Br. J. Anaesth. 2008; 100: 307-314.
  • 93. Rhee P., Wang D., Ruff P. i wsp.: Human neutrophil activation and increased adhesion by various resuscitation fluids. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 28: 74-78.
  • 94. Rittoo D., Gosling P., Simms M.H. i wsp.: The effects of hydroxyethyl starch compared with gelofusine on activated endothelium and the systemic inflammatory response following aortic aneurysm repair. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2005; 30: 520-524.
  • 95. Bunn F., Trivedi D., Ashraf S.: Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2008: CD001319 .
  • 96. Bundgaard-Nielsen M., Holte K., Secher N.H., Kehlet H .: Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy Acta Anaesthesiol . Scand. 2007; 51: 331-340.
  • 97. Kehlet H., Wilmore D.W: Evidence-based surgical care and the evolution of fast-track surgery. Ann. Surg. 2008; 248: 189-198.
  • 98. Holte K., Kehlet H.: Fluid therapy and surgical outcomes in elective surgery: a need for reassessment in fast-track surgery. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2006; 202: 971-989.
  • 99. Bundgaard-Nielsen M., Ruhnau B., Secher N.H., Kehlet H.: Flow-related techniques for preoperative goal-directed fluid optimization. Br. J. Anaesth. 2007; 98: 38-44.
  • 100. Martini WZ., Chinkes D.L., Pusateri A.E. i wsp.: Acute changes in fibrinogen metabolism and coagulation after hemorrhage in pigs. AJP-Endo 2005; 289: 930-934.
  • 101. Brohi K., Cohen M.J., Ganter M.T. i wsp.: Acute traumatic coagulopathy: initiated by hypoperfusion, modulated through the protein C pathway. Ann. Surg. 2007; 245: 812-818.
  • 102. Uszyński M.: Klasyczne i nowo poznane koagulopatie położnicze. Wydawnictwo Medyczne Urban & Partner. Wrocław 2003.
  • 103. Cho J.H., Jun H.S., Lee C.N.: Hemostatic suturing technique for uterine bleeding during cesarean delivery. Obstet. Gynecol. 2000; 96: 129-131.
  • 104. Tamizian O., Arulkumaran S.: The surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage . Curr. Opin . Obstet. Cyn-ecol. 2001; 13: 127-131.
  • 105. B-Lynch C., Coker A., Lawal A.H. i wsp.: The B-Lynch surgical technique for the control of massive postpartum haemorrhage: an alternative to hysterectomy? Five cases reported. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1997; 104: 372-375.
  • 106. Holtsema H., Nijland R., Huisman A. i wsp.: The B-Lynch technique for post partum haemorrhage: an option for every gynaecologist . Eur. J . Obstet . Gynaecol. Reprod. Biol. 2004; 115: 39-42.
  • 107. Ojala K., Perala J., Kariniemi J. i wsp.: Arterial embolization and prophylactic catheterization for the treatment for severe obstetric hemorrhage . Acta Obstet . Gynecol. Scand. 2005; 84: 1075-1080.
  • 108. Chandraharan E., Arulkumaran S.: Surgical aspects of postpartum haemorrhage . Best Pract. Res . Clin . Obstet. Gynaecol. 2008; 22: 1089-1102.
  • 109. Flood K.M., Said S., Geary M. i wsp.: Changing trends in peripartum hysterectomy over the last 4 decades . Am . J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2009; 200: 632. e1-6.
  • 110. Baskett T.F.: Surgical management of severe obstetric hemorrhage: experience with an obstetric hemorrhage equipment tray. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Can. 2004; 26: 805-808.
  • 111. Yamamoto H., Sagae S., Nishik WA., Skuto R.: Emergency postpartum hysterectomy in obstetric practice J. Obstet. Gynecol. Res. 2000; 26: 341-345.
  • 112. Haynes J., Laffan M., Plaat F.: Use of recombinant activated factor VII in massive obstetric haemorrhage. Int. J. Obstet. Anesth. 2007; 16: 40-49.
  • 113. Hedner U.: Dosing with recombinant factor Vila based on current evidence. Semin. Hematol. 2004; 41 (supl. 1): 35-39
  • 114. Welsh A., McLintock C., Gatt S. i wsp.: Guidelines for the use of recombinant activated factor VII in massive obstetric haemorrhage. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2008; 48: 12-16.
  • 115. Phillips L.E., McLintock C., Pollock W i wsp.: Recombinant activated factor VII in obstetric hemorrhage: experiences from the Australian and New Zealand haemostasis registry. Anesth. Analg. 2009; 109: 1908-1915.
  • 116. Meng Z.H., Wolberg A.S., Monroe D.M. III, Hoffman M : The effect of temperature and pH on the activity of factor VIIa: implications for the efficacy of high-dose factor VIIa in hypothermic and acidotic patients. J. Trauma 2003; 55: 886-891.
  • 117. Glynn J.C., Plaat F.: Prothrombin complex for massive obstetric haemorrhage. Anaesthesia 2007; 62: 202-203.
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-f6c2b158-fdf0-4e59-9dbf-ea2adb3c13cf
Identifiers
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.