Biological spectra of vegetation of Sathan Gali, Mansehra, KPK, Pakistan
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The present study was carried out to assess the biological spectra of the existing vegetation of Sathan Galli, District Mansehra of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK) Pakistan. In this study, area under investigation was divided into 33 stands on the basis of physiognomic characteristics of the vegetation. A total of 105 plant species of 55 families were recorded. The leaf size spectra was dominated by Microphyll contributing 68 species, followed by Mesophylls 45 species, Nanophyll 41 species, Macrophyll and Leptophylls l7 species. Therophytes were found as leading life form of the area encompassing 30.35% species, followed by Hemicryptophytes 20.23% and Megaphanerophytes 16.66%. The biological spectra indicating prevailing climatic conditions of the area and adaptation of vegetation to these conditions. The finding of current exploration revealed that Therophytes and Microphyll were dominant in the study area depicting heavy biotic pressure due to deforestation, over grazing and soil erosion.
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