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2008 | 8 | 2 | 112-117
Article title

Bupropion w leczeniu depresji - skuteczność, objawy uboczne i bezpieczeństwo leku

Content
Title variants
EN
Bupropion for depression treatment – efficacy, side effects and safety of drug
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
The precise mechanism of action of bupropion is unknown. However, it is probably connected with weak selective inhibition of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake. Bupropion is a more potent inhibitor of dopamine reuptake than of norepinephrine reuptake. Moreover, it does not have serotonin activity, antihistamine activity. It has no effect on monoamine oxidase, does not affect release of neurotransmitters, does not bind to postsynaptic receptors including histamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine or α- or β-adrenergic receptors. In many randomised placebo-controlled and active comparator – controlled studies, the effectiveness of bupropion was confirmed for treatment of major depressive disorder similar to other antidepressants. It is also effective in high level anxiety depression treatment. There are few data about its use in anxiety disorders without depression. Bupropion is usually well tolerated by patients. It does not cause sleepiness, weight gain and sexual dysfunction. During the therapy patients report dry mouth (22%), headache (20%), nausea (15%), insomnia (14%) and constipation (9%). There is a dose-dependent risk of seizures associated with the use of bupropion. Before the treatment it is necessary to find out whether there are factors increasing the risk of seizures. Bupropion is significantly less cardiotoxic in case of overdose than tricyclic antidepressants. In patients with hypertension the blood pressure should be controlled. Bupropion therapy is often accompanied by insomnia which is associated with its REM sleep suppression. It also causes dermatological side effects more often than other antidepressants. It is relatively safe above therapeutical doses. In case of overdose tachycardia, blood pressure increase, gastrointestinal symptoms, agitation, seizures, hallucinations are most often observed. There is no antidote. The best results are obtained with activated charcoal therapy.
PL
Dokładny mechanizm działania bupropionu pozostaje nadal nieznany, jednakże prawdopodobnie wiąże się on ze słabym selektywnym wychwytem zwrotnym noradrenaliny (NA) i dopaminy (DA) - silniej działa na wychwyt DA niż NA. Ponadto nie wykazuje aktywności serotoninergicznej, działania antyhistaminowego, nie hamuje monoaminooksydazy, nie wpływa na uwalnianie neurotransmiterów, nie wiąże się z postsynaptycznymi receptorami histaminowymi, muskarynowymi, serotoninergicznymi, dopaminergicznymi ani a- i P-adrener-gicznymi. W licznych badaniach randomizowanych z placebo i z aktywnym komparatorem wykazano, iż skuteczność bupropionu w leczeniu dużej depresji jest porównywalna ze skutecznością innych leków przeciwde-presyjnych. Skuteczne działanie leku stwierdzono także w leczeniu depresji z dużym nasileniem lęku. Niewiele jest natomiast danych o jego skuteczności w izolowanych zaburzeniach lękowych. Bupropion jest uważany za lek dobrze tolerowany przez pacjentów. Nie powoduje senności, przyrostu masy ciała, korzystnie wpływa na funkcje seksualne. W czasie terapii chorzy najczęściej zgłaszają suchość w jamie ustnej (22%), bóle głowy (20%), nudności (15%), bezsenność (14%) i zaparcia (9%). Ryzyko wystąpienia drgawek podczas przyjmowania bupropionu jest uzależnione od dawki. Przed rozpoczęciem leczenia należy ustalić, czy istnieją inne czynniki zwiększające ryzyko napadu padaczkowego. Bupropion jest istotnie mniej kardiotoksyczny w przypadku przedawkowania w porównaniu z trójpierścieniowymi lekami przeciwdepresyjnymi. U pacjentów chorujących na nadciśnienie tętnicze należy kontrolować wartości RR podczas terapii tym lekiem. Często leczeniu towarzyszy bezsenność związana z supresyjnym działaniem bupropionu na sen REM. Częściej także niż inne leki przeciwdepresyjne wywołuje on odczyny skórne. Bupropion jest stosunkowo bezpiecznym lekiem w przypadku przekroczenia dawek terapeutycznych. Po przedawkowaniu najczęściej obserwuje się tachykar-dię, wzrost wartości RR, objawy żołądkowo-jelitowe, pobudzenie, drgawki, halucynacje. Nie istnieje antidotum. Najlepsze rezultaty uzyskuje się dzięki zastosowaniu węgla aktywowanego.
Discipline
Year
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
112-117
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Zaburzeń Afektywnych i Psychotycznych Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi. Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-f27a1ec0-a766-4e3e-86e6-5af54d736223
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