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2006 | 6 | 2 | 88-94
Article title

Modyfikowalne czynniki ryzyka rozwoju zaburzeń funkcji poznawczych: co możemy zrobić, aby uniknąć otępienia?

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EN
Alzheimer’s disease as preventable illness: a risk factors based approach
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Abstracts
EN
The prevalence of dementias in westernized countries, including Alzheimer’s disease, is on the rise, mainly due to graying of the populations as well as to the advances of treatment and care of infectious diseases, cancer and cardiovascular disorders, which all lead to a decreased mortality rate in the elderly. The costs of dementia care worldwide grows on parallel, including both direct and indirect cost for patients and their families, as well as health care systems. It has been estimated that modifying strategy delaying the onset of dementia symptoms of merely 5 years would have already a major impact of both prevalence and costs. Several drugs have been proposed as potentially delaying or preventing dementia, including statins, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal therapies, vitamins, natural products and even cholinesterase inhibitors; none of them have been, however, approved for that purpose yet. A number of risk factors might be, on the other hand, managed by non-pharmacological interventions, including lifestyle modifications and early life prevention strategies. In this paper I review current strategies based mainly on cognitive reserve hypothesis. Although no definite recommendations are possible at this point, it looks as if some general issues might already be raised. According to current estimates elderly who keep physically and mentally active, taking care of their cardiovascular fitness as well as moderately restricting their caloric intake (without compromising vitamins and micronutrients) might delay the onset of dementia of several years or even reduce a total risk of developing dementia.
PL
Starzenie się populacji krajów wysoko rozwiniętych i rozwój medycyny (dający w efekcie spadek śmiertelności głównie z powodu chorób zakaźnych, chorób nowotworowych i chorób układu krążenia) prowadzą do wzrostu prewalencji związanych z wiekiem chorób neurozwyrodnieniowych, przede wszystkim choroby Alzheimera. Obserwuje się także stały wzrost kosztów związanych z otępieniem, zarówno bezpośrednio dla chorych i ich bliskich, jak i dla systemów ochrony zdrowia i opiekuńczych. Szacuje się, że skuteczna strategia prewencyjna, opóźniająca wystąpienie objawów otępienia o 5 lat (a więc w istocie tylko modyfikująca przebieg choroby), zmniejszyłaby światowe koszty o 20 %. Intensywnie badane są strategie oparte o interwencje farmakologiczne, m.in. z wykorzystaniem statyn, leków przeciwzapalnych, leków hormonalnych, witamin, preparatów pochodzenia naturalnego, a nawet inhibitorów cholinesterazy. Szereg zidentyfikowanych obecnie czynników ryzyka może być jednak przedmiotem interwencji niefarmakologicznych, głównie dotyczących stylu życia oraz interwencji profilaktycznych we wczesnym okresie rozwojowym. W pracy omówiono potencjalnie modyfikowalne czynniki ryzyka choroby Alzheimera i, opartych o współczesny stan wiedzy, możliwości niefarmakologicznych działań profilaktycznych. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono koncepcji rezerwy poznawczej i bazujących na niej strategiach związanych z treningami funkcji poznawczych, aktywnością fizyczną, prawidłową dietą, czy utrzymywaniem bogatej sieci kontaktów społecznych. Jakkolwiek nie można obecnie sformułować żadnych jednoznacznych rekomendacji, coraz więcej danych wskazuje na to, że – niezależnie od czynników natury biologicznej (w tym genetycznych) – ryzyko wystąpienia choroby Alzheimera jest mniejsze, a wiek wystąpienia pierwszych objawów późniejszy u osób aktywnych fizycznie i umysłowo, dbających o sprawność układu sercowo-naczyniowego oraz (prawdopodobnie) ograniczających liczbę kalorii w diecie, bez jednoczesnego indukowania niedoborów witaminowych.
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Volume
6
Issue
2
Pages
88-94
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author
  • Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Podeszłego & Zaburzeń Psychotycznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, ul. Czechosłowacka 8/10, 92-216 Łódź, tel. 042 675 72 60, tmsobow@csk.umed.lodz.pl
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