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2017 | 15 | 4 | 268–276
Article title

Pozytonowa tomografia emisyjna – znaczenie w ginekologii

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EN
Positron emission tomography – role in gynecology
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PL EN
Abstracts
EN
Positron emission tomography records radiation emitted during the annihilation of positrons. This method is applied in neurology, cardiology, oncology and for locating inflammation foci; it also has an important role in gynecology. The paper presents the application of positron emission tomography for the diagnosis of ovarian and breast cancer and in cervical cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Endometrial, ovarian and cervical carcinoma are the fourth, fifth and sixth most prevalent cancers, respectively. These diseases are the second (breast cancer), fourth (ovarian cancer), seventh (cervical cancer) and tenth (endometrial cancer) cause of death due to cancer among women. Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, which is increasingly widely available, allows for disease staging during one scan. In the case of breast cancer PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is characterized by high sensitivity mainly in triple-negative cancer and in inflammatory cancer. Other forms of breast cancer are characterized by lower glucose metabolism and can give false-negative results. PET/CT ensures higher accuracy in the diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer than other imaging methods. PET/CT is also of high utility for the staging of cervical cancer and detection of its recurrence and, in particular, for radiotherapy planning. The procedure is highly sensitive in the detection of metastatic lymph nodes both in cervical and endometrial cancer. This method is very effective in the assessment of ovarian cancer recurrence with increased tumor marker levels. PET/CT scan results affect therapeutic decisions in a substantial proportion of patients with ovarian cancer.
PL
W pozytonowej tomografii emisyjnej rejestruje się promieniowanie powstające podczas anihilacji pozytonów. Metoda ta jest stosowana w neurologii, kardiologii, onkologii oraz w lokalizowaniu ognisk zapalnych, ma także szczególne znaczenie w ginekologii. W pracy przedstawiono zastosowanie pozytonowej tomografii emisyjnej w diagnozowaniu raka jajnika i gruczołu sutkowego oraz w raku szyjki macicy. Rak piersi jest najczęstszym nowotworem złośliwym wśród kobiet, a nowotwory trzonu macicy, jajnika i szyjki macicy zajmują odpowiednio czwarte, piąte i szóste miejsce według częstości występowania. Wymienione choroby stanowią drugą (rak piersi), czwartą (rak jajnika), siódmą (rak szyjki macicy) i dziesiątą (rak trzonu macicy) przyczynę zgonów z powodu nowotworów złośliwych wśród kobiet. Pozytonowa tomografia emisyjna połączona z tomografią komputerową (PET/CT) z użyciem 18F-fluorodeoksyglukozy, która jest coraz szerzej dostępna, umożliwia ocenę stopnia zaawansowania choroby w  trakcie jednego badania. W  przypadku raka piersi PET/CT z 18F-fluorodeoksyglukozą wykazuje wysoką czułość głównie w raku potrójnie negatywnym i w postaci zapalnej. Pozostałe postacie charakteryzują się niższym metabolizmem glukozy i mogą dawać wyniki fałszywie ujemne. W diagnostyce nawrotu raka piersi PET/CT zapewnia większą dokładność niż inne metody obrazowania. PET/CT cechuje też duża przydatność w ocenie zaawansowania i wznowy raka szyjki macicy, a w szczególności w planowaniu radioterapii. Zarówno w raku szyjki, jak i trzonu macicy badanie wykazuje wysoką czułość w detekcji przerzutowych węzłów chłonnych. Metoda ta jest bardzo skuteczna w ocenie wznowy raka jajnika przy wzroście stężenia markerów nowotworowych. Wyniki badania PET/CT wpływają na decyzje terapeutyczne u znacznej części chorych z rakiem jajnika.
Discipline
Year
Volume
15
Issue
4
Pages
268–276
Physical description
References
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article
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