Detection and enumeration of Enteric bacteria associated with food handlers and surfaces of food manufacturing industry located in Hub city, Pakistan
Languages of publication
Foodborne microorganisms harbor and adheres itself to the food material and surrounding surfaces for a long time and influence the food quality and consumers health. Among these microbes the presence of Enteric indicator bacteria in food premises confers the indication of entero-pathogens, i.e. E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacters that could cause severe systemic infections in consumers. In this study, the hygienic status of confectionery and supplementary food processing facility was evaluated. A total of 10497 examinations were performed on 3499 swab samples collected from food premises and handlers for the analysis of Enteric indicator bacteria. From swabs, 1277 (12.2%) isolates were identified in which Enterobacteriaceae were found with higher frequency 604 (47.3%) followed by Coliforms 293 (30.8%) and Escherichia coli 280 (21.9%) respectively. The mean count (CFU/cm2) was found maximum for plain surfaces (floors, walls and door), while the lowest was for equipment and machinery. Overall isolates percent prevalence was determined where Enterobacteriaceae were 47%, Coliforms 31% and Escherichia coli 22%. Majority of the floor surfaces were highly contaminated, where washing and sanitation practices were observed to be inappropriate. Worker hygiene status was lacking essential food safety and hygiene standards. In general, the Enteric bacteria were found with higher ratio, that could affect the food quality and quantity both to a greater extent with some influences on consumers health.
-  Bagge-Revn, D., Ng, Y., Hjelm, M., Christiansen, J. N., Johansen, C., & Gram L. (2003). The microbial ecology of processing equipment in different fish industries-analysis of the microflora during processing and following cleaning and disinfection. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 87, 239-250.
-  Vogel, B. F., Huss, H. H., Ojeniyi, B., Ahrens, P., & Gram, L. (2001). Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 2586-2595.
-  Lues, J. F. R., & Tonder, I. V. (2007). The occurrence of indicator bacteria on hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a retail group. Food Control. 18, 326-332.
-  Borch, E., & Arinder, P. (2002). Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products as well as control measures. Meat Science. 62, 381-390.
-  Assefa, T., Tasew, H., Wondafrash, B., & Beker, J. (2015). Assessment of Bacterial Hand Contamination and Associated Factors among Food Handlers Working in the Student Cafeterias of Jimma University Main Campus, Jimma, South West Ethiopia. Community Medicine & Health Education, 5(2), 1000345.
-  WHO (2004). Global strategy for food safety: safer food for better health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
-  Käferstein, F. K. (2003). Food safety the fourth pillar in the strategy to prevent infant diarrhea. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81, 842-843.
-  Zain, M. M., and Naing, N. N. (2002). Socio-demographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 33, 410-7.
-  Campos, A. K. C., Cardonha, A. M. S., Pinheiro, L. B. G., Ferreira, N. R., Azevedo, P. R. M. D., & Stamford, T. L. M. (2009). Assessment of personal hygiene and practices of food handlers in municipal public schools of Natal, Brazil. Food Control. 20, 807-810.
-  Michaels, B., Keller, C., Blevins, M., Paoli, G., & Ruthman, T. (2004). Prevention of food worker transmission of foodborne pathogens: risk assessment and evaluation of effective hygiene intervention strategies. Food Service Technology, 4, 31-49.
-  Guzevich, J., & Ross, M. P. (1999). Evaluation of risks related to microbiological contamination of ready-to-eat food by food preparation workers and the effectiveness of interventions to minimize those risks. FDA/CFSAN. Available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ear/rterisk.html
-  Lambrechts, A. A., Human, I. S., Doughari, J. H., & Lues, J. F. R. (2014). Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries. Pakistan Journal of Medical Science, 30(4), 755-758.
-  Andargie, G., Kassu, A., Moges, F., Tiruneh, M., & Huruy, K. (2008). Prevalence of Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 26(4), 451-455.
-  Schlundt, J., Toyofuku, H., Jansen, J. & Herbst, S. A. (2004). Emerg¬ing food-borne zoonoses. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 23, 513-33.
-  Plaut, A.G. (2000). Clinical pathology of foodborne diseases: notes on the patient with foodborne gastrointestinal illness. Journal of Food Protection, 63(6), 822-6.
-  WHO (1987). Prevention and con¬trol of intestinal parasitic infections. World Health Organization, Geneva, 7-18. (Technical report se¬ries no. 749).
-  WHO (1989). Health surveillance and management procedures of food-handling person-nel. World Health Organization, Geneva, 7-36. (Technical report series no. 785).
-  Lin, C. M., Wu, F. M., Kim, H. K., Doyle, M. P., Michael, B. S., & Wil¬liams L. K. (2003). A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural or artificial fingernails. Journal of Food Protection, 66, 2296-301.
-  Ali, R., Abbas, S. Z., Hussain, Z., Hussain, K., Hayat, A., & Khan, A. (2015). Bacteriological Analysis and Antibiogram of Pakistani Paper Currency Notes in Circulation in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 3, 370-376.
-  Shojaei, H., Shooshtaripoor, J., & Amiri, M. (2006). Efficacy of simple hand-washing in reduction of microbial hand contamination of Iranian food handlers. Food Research International, 39, 525-529.
-  Allwood, P. B., Jenkins, T., Paulus, C., Johnson, L., & Hedberg, C. W. (2004). Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota. Journal of Food Protection, 67, 2825-2828.
-  Sneed, J., Strohbehn, C., Gilmore, S.A., &Mendonca, A. (2004). Microbiological evaluation of food service contact surfaces in Iowa assisted-living facilities. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 104, 1722-1724.
-  ISO 21528-2 (2004). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal methods for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae - Part 2: Colony count method. International Organization for Standardization.
-  ISO 4832 (2006). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms - Colony-count technique. International Organization for Standardization.
-  ISO 16649-2 (2001). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of β-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli - Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 °C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronide. International Organization for Standardization.
-  ISO 18593 (2004). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal methods for sampling techniques from surfaces using contact plates and swabs. International Organization for Standardization.
-  Kaferstein, F., & Abdussalam, M. (1999). Food safety in the 21st century. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77, 347-51.
-  Gibson, H., Taylor, J. H., Hall, K. E., & Holah, J. T. (1999). Effectiveness of cleaning techniques used in the food industry in terms of the removal of bacterial biofilms. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 87, 41-48.
-  Dunsmore, D. G., Twomey, A., Whittlestone, W. G. & Morgan, H. W. (1981). Design and performance of systems for cleaning product contact surfaces of food equipment: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 44, 220-240.
-  Gounadakia, A. S., Skandamis, P. N., Drosinosb, E. H., & Nychas, G. J. E. (2008). Microbial ecology of food contact surfaces and products of small-scale facilities producing traditional sausages. Food Microbiology, 25, 313-323.
-  Talon, R., Lebert, I., Lebert, A., Leroy, S., Garriga, M., Aymerich, T., Drosinos, E. H., Zanardi, E., Ianieri, A., Fraqueza, M. J., Patarata, L., and Laukova, A. (2007). Traditional fry fermented sausages produced in small-scale processing units in Mediterranean countries and Slovakia. 1: Microbial ecosystems of processing environments. Meat Science, 77(4), 570-9.
-  Lehto, M., Kuisma, R., Määttä, J., Kymäläinen, H.R., & Mäki, M. (2011). Hygienic level and surface contamination in fresh-cut vegetable production plants. Food Control, 22, 469-475.
-  Marija, R., Mirko, P., Ljupco, A., Dean, J., Pavle, S., & Sandra, M. (2013). Evaluation of the hygiene status in several meat and dairy processing establishments in R. Macedonia. Macedonian Veterinary Review, 36(2), 101-105.
-  Oranusi S., Dahunsi, S. O., Owoso, O. O., & Olatile, T. (2013). Microbial profiles of Hands, Foods, Easy contact surfaces and Food contact surfaces: A case study of a University Campus. Novus International Journal of Biotechnology & Bioscience, 2(1), 30-38.
Publication order reference