Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 12 | 1-20
Article title

Pollution assessment models of surface soils in Port Harcourt city, Rivers State, Nigeria

Title variants
Languages of publication
Environmental pollution has resulted in several health and physiological problems in both plants and animals. This has witnessed growing number of models for assessment purposes. Some of these provide useful information, and reduce large data for easier understanding by policy-makers. In the current study of pollution, we used data from four locations: Oil Market, Trans Amadi, Borrokiri and GRA in Port Harcourt and a control taken from Federal Land Resource Umuahia (FLRU). A total of 25 composite soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals, by means of a 969 Unicam AAS model series. The data obtained were then subjected to index models. Results showed iron (Fe) to be most abundant metal, ranging from 10.44 to 19.54 mg/kg, then Ni (8.03 to 13.6mg/kg), Cd (3.96 to 5.41 mg/kg), Pb (1.36 to 7.64 mg/kg), Zn (0.09 to 7.24 mg/kg), Cu (0.16 to 0.32) and As (0.07 to 0.11 mg/kg). All metal concentrations were below permissible limits set by NESRA. Contamination factor (Cf) and Igeo revealed moderate to heavy contamination by Cd and Zn. Anthropogenicity revealed that increasing metals in the environment are largely from anthropogenic inputs. The Pollution Index revealed that soils were unpolluted (PLI < 1) with the heavy metals. Furthermore, the Sodium absorption ratio showed that the soils are less sodic and could be good soils for plant growth. All four sites showed a linear relationship between anthropogenicity and geoaccumulation indexes, and so both indexes furnish basically the same information However, pollution from these metals in the study area should be under routine check for possible pollution in the near future, as some metals showed elevated concentrations above background values.
  • Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE&CC), Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. P.M.B 2000, Nigeria
  • Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE&CC), Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. P.M.B 2000, Nigeria
  • [1] Abechi ES, Okunola OJ, Zubairu SMJ, Usman, AA. and Apene E. ‘Evaluation of heavy metals in roadside soils of major streets in Jos metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology 2010; 2(6): 98-102
  • [2] Ano AO. Trace metal studies on soils of the Nigerian coastal plain and status of Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn. Journal of Science and Crops 1994; 4 (1) 1-5
  • [3] Adewoyin, O. A, Hassan, A. T. and Aladesida, A. A. (2013). The impacts of auto-mechanic workshops on soil and groundwater in Ibadan metropolis. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 7(9), 891-898.
  • [4] Abduls- Salem, N. (2009). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in dump sites in Ilorin metropolis. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 2(2), 92-99
  • [5] Ahukaemere, C. M, Obi, C.I. Ndukwu, B.N and Nwamadi, N. J (2016). Characterization And Classification Of Soils Of Egbema In Imo State, South-Eastern Nigeria. Futo Journal Series (Futojnls) 2, (1), 41-47
  • [6] Akpoveta, O.V, Osakwe, S.A, Okoh, B E; Otuya, B O (2010). Physicochemical Characteristics and Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Soils around Metal Scrap Dumps in Some Parts of Delta State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage 14 (4), 57-60
  • [7] Alloway, B.J. and D.C. Ayres, Chemical Principles of Environmental pollution, Blackie Academic and Professional 53-359, 1997.
  • [8] Annao WL, Nurdan DAK, Cheung CC and Mingh W. (2008). Heavy Metals Concentrations of Surface Dust from e-Waste Recycling and Its Human Health Implications in Southeast China. Environmental science &amp; technology 42(7): 2671- 2680.
  • [9] Barbieri M (2016) The Importance of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) to Evaluate the Soil Contamination. J Geol Geophys 5:2 37. doi:10.4172/2381-8719.1000237
  • [10] Bayero A (2004) .Environmental Degradation, Causes, Effects, Implications for Resource Conservation and the Future. In Environmental Degradation, Reclamation, Conservation and Pollution Control for Rural Women and the Youths. Proceedings of the National Training Workshop organized by The Environment and Development
  • [11] Action Plan for Women (EDAPW) and the Nigerian National Commission for UNESCO (NATCOM), UNAD, 24th-26th August, 2004. 37-48.
  • [12] Bernard, A. (2008). Cadmium &amp; its adverse effects on human health. Indian J Med Res. 128(4): 557-564.
  • [13] DPR (2002). Environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industry in Nigeria. Department of Petroleum Resources, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • [14] Ebong, G.A., H.S. Etuk and A.S. Johnson. (2007). Heavy metals accumulation by Talinum triangulare grown on waste dumpsites in uyo metropolis, akwa ibom state, Nigeria. J. Applied Sci. 7: 1404-1409
  • [15] Ebong, G.A., M.M. Akpan and V.N. Mkpenie, (2008). Heavy metal contents of municipal and rural dumpsite soils and rate of accumulation by Carica Papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo, Nigeria. E-J. Chem. 5: 281-290
  • [16] Eja, M.E., O.R. Ogri And G.E. Arikpo (2003). Bioconcentration of heavy metals in surface sediments from the great Kwa river estuary, Calabar, Southeastern Nigeria. J. Nig. Environ. Soc. 1: 247-256
  • [17] Elaigwu, S.E., V.O. Ajibola and F.M. Folaranmi, (2007). Studies on the impact of municipal waste dumps on surrounding soil and air quality of two cities in Northern Nigeria. J. Applied Sci. 7: 421-425
  • [18] Eneje RC, Lemoha KT. 2012. Heavy metal content and physicochemical properties of municipal solid waste dump soils in Owerri, Imo State. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research 2(5), 3795-3799
  • [19] Enyoh Christian Ebere, Ihionu Ezechiel Amarachukwu, Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Ebosie Patricia Ngozi (2017). Physicochemical Parameter Of Palm Oil And Soil From Ihube Community, Okigwe, Imo State Nigeria. International Letters Of Natural Sciences, 62, 35-43
  • [20] Forstner UW, Calmano W (1993). Sediment quality objectives and criteria development in Germany. Water Sci Technol 28: 307-316.
  • [21] Godson R. E. E Ana. And Mynepali K. C Sridhar (2004). Soil Quality Near A Chemical Fertilizer Industry At Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Ajeam-Ragee, 8, 19-26
  • [22] Holmgren, G.; Meyer, M.; Chaney, R.; Daniels, R. (1993). Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. J. Environ. Qual. 22, 335-348
  • [23] Mmolawa, K.B., Likuku, A.S. &amp; Gaboutloeloe, G.K. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside areas in Botswana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5(3): 186-196
  • [24] Ideriah JJK, Harry FO, Stanley HO, Igbara J K. (2010). Heavy metal contamination of soils and vegetation around solid waste dumps in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 14(1), 101-109
  • [25] Imperato, M.; Adamo, P.; Naimo, D.; Arienzo, M.; Stanzione, D.; Violante, P. (2003). Spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban soils of Naples city. Environ. Poll. 124, 247-256
  • [26] Isirimah, N.O. and Dickson, A. Soil Chemistry. In: Introductory Soil Chemistry and Biology for Agriculture and Biotechnology. Isirimah, N.O. (Ed.), 19-32, 2003
  • [27] Mathias O. Nweke and Stephen N. Ukpai (2016). Use of Enrichment, Ecological Risk and Contamination Factors with Geoaccumulation Indexes to Evaluate Heavy Metal Contents in the Soils around Ameka Mining Area, South of Abakaliki, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 5(4): 1-13
  • [28] Miller GT Jr (1988). Environmental Science: An introduction. 2nd Edition. Wadsworth Publishing Company. In: Okonkwo, G. E. (2000). Impact of Pepsi-7up Industrial Effluents on Surface Water (Alaro Stream). p. 407.
  • [29] Mohsen, S., R. Majid and B. G. Khabbaz, Prediction of Soil Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Based on Soil Sodium Adsorption Ratio, American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, vol. 5 no. 1 pp. 01-04, 2009
  • [30] Morgan, P. and Watkinson, R.J. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Soils and Methods for Soil Biotreatment. CRC Critical Reviews. In Biolechnol. 1989, 8(4): 305-330.
  • [31] Muller, G., 1981. Die schwermetallbelstung der sedimente des neckars und seiner nebenflusse: Eine estandsaufnahme. Chemiker Zeitung, 105: 157-164.
  • [32] Mustafa F. (2003). Determination of heavy metals in soil, Mushroom and plane by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Micro chemical Journal 74: 289-297
  • [33] Ndiokwere, C.L. and C.A. Ezihe (1990). The occurence of heavy metals in the vacinity of industrial complexes in Nigeria. Environ. Int. 16: 291-295
  • [34] Obasi N.A., E.I. Akubugwo, O.C. Ugbogu and Glory Otuchristian, (2012). Assessment of Physico-chemical Properties and Heavy Metals Bioavailability in Dumpsites along Enugu-port Harcourt Expressways, South-east, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5: 342-356
  • [35] Ogbonna DN, Amangabara GT, Ekere TO (2002). Urban Solid Waste Generation in Port Harcourt and its Implication for Waste Management. In: Management of Environmental Quality, 18, 1-6
  • [36] Ogbonna, D.N.,; Benjamin, L. K.; Patrick, O.Y. (2009). Some physico-chemical and Heavy metal levels in soils of waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt Municipality and Environs. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 13(4) 65-70
  • [37] Okoro, A.C, Chukwuma, G.O, Chukwuma, E. C, ugwu, I.E. (2015). Distribution of Heavy Metals And Other Physico-chemical Properties of Soil At Automobile Mechanic villages, Imo State. International Journal of Scientific &amp; Engineering Research, 6, (2), 1196-1204
  • [38] Ololade, I.A., A.O. Ashoghon and O. Adeyemi, (2007). Plant level of chromium and nicket at a refuse site, Any positive impact? J. Applied Sci. 7: 1768-1773
  • [39] Osakwe, S A., Otuya O B., Adaikpo, E O. (2003). Determination of Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Hg in the soil of Okpai, Delta state, Nig. J. Sci. and Environ. 3: 45.
  • [40] Osakwe, S. A. (2014). Evaluation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils in the Flood Disaster Affected Areas of Isoko Region of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(5), 24-31.
  • [41] Osazee O. J., O. N. Obayagbona, E. O. Daniel (2013). Microbiological and physicochemical analyses of top soils obtained from four municipal waste dumpsites in Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 1(1): 23-30
  • [42] Oyedele DJ, Gasu MB, Awotoye OO. 2008. Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on selected municipal solid waste dump sites in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 3(5), 107-115
  • [43] Sezgin N, Kurtulus H, Demir G, Nemlioglu S and Bayat C., Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dust in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environ. Int. 2003; 29: 979-985
  • [44] Škrbić, B.; Miljević, N. (2002). An evaluation of residues at an oil refinery sites following fires. J. Environ. Sci. Health A, 37, 1029-1039
  • [45] Strnad, M.; Sanka, M.; Bohacek, Z.; Borovcova, I.; Vondra, J. (1994). Soil pollution by heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the town of Brno (Czech Republic). Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 54, 233-248
  • [46] Taofeek AY and Tolulope OO. (2012). Evaluation of some Heavy Metals in Soils along a Major Road in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria, Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 2(8): 71-79
  • [47] Thomilson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW (1980). Problem in the assessment of heavy metals levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgol Mar Res 33: 566-575
  • [48] Udo EJ and Fagbami AA. (1979). The profile distribution of toal and extractable Zinc in selected Nigeria Soils. Common soil Sci. Plant Anal. 10: 1141-1161
  • [49] Udofia, P. A. Statistics for Social Scientists Calabar, PAF Publishers Inc. 2005, 341-342
  • [50] [52]. Ukpaka C. P. and Pele A. (2012). Elemental analysis of soil characteristics due to municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt City. International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation, 1(5): 130-141
  • [51] United Nations (2001). The State of World Population 2001. United Nations Publications, New York.
  • [52] Ure, A.M.; Berrow, M.L. In Environmental Chemistry, Ed. Bowen, H., J.M. Roy. Soc. Chem. London, 1982.
  • [53] Us Epa. Process Design Manual Land Application Of Municipal Wastewater Sludge., Epa-625/1-83-016. Cincinnati, Ohio, Usa, 1983
  • [54] Verla N. Evelyn, Horsfall M. Jnr, and A.I. Spiff. (2015). Physico chemical Characterization of Playgrounds Soils of public Schools in Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 13(2): 472-480.
  • [55] Zakir H. M., N. Shhikazono and K. Otomo, (2008). Geochemical Distribution of Trace metalsand Assessment of Anthropogenic Pollution in Sediments of Old Nakargawa River, Tokyo, Japan. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4(6), 654-665
  • [56] Zurero-Cosano, G.; Moreno-Rojas, R.; Salmeron-Egea, J.; Pozo Lora, R.(1989). Heavy metal uptake from greenhouse border soils for edible vegetables. J. Sci. Food Agric. 49, 307-314
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.