Firmness and calyx covering an arsenal against Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linné, 1758) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) infestation in stored dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
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Three date cultivars were sourced from the open market, sterilized and infested with Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. in a no-choice infestation experiment to determine emergence and weight loss. Emergence of O. surinamensis in Jigawa cultivar with and without calyx was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than emergence in Mali and Deglet Noor with and without calyx, just as emergence in Mali cultivar without calyx was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than emergence in Deglet Noor with and without calyx. Based on cultivar, Deglet Noor gave the least emergence of O. surinamensis, with the highest in Jigawa cultivar. There was a highly significant (P≤0.05) weight loss in Jigawa date cultivar compared with weight loss in both Deglet Noor and Mali date cultivars. Moreover, dates without calyx had significantly higher (P≤0.05) weight loss compared with dates with calyx. Finally, pulpy dates appeared to be the most susceptible cultivars, whereas firm dates were the least susceptible date cultivars. Conclusively, the results showed that Deglet Noor cultivar with calyx had the least emergence of O. surinamensis, as well as loss in weight, and is, therefore, recommended to store-owners for prolonged storage.
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