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2011 | 9 | 3 | 158-168
Article title

Choroba zakrzepowo-zatorowa a nowotwory narządu płciowego

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Title variants
EN
Venous thromboembolic disease and gynecologic malignancy
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EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Venous thromboembolism is a multifactorial disease and a frequent complication in patients affected with malignant tumors. The risk of venous thrombosis in oncologic patients increases seven-fold and is particularly high during the first few months after diagnosis. Molecular mechanisms of tumor – thrombosis correlation are relatively well known. Main factors responsible for hypercoagulation state are tissue factor and tumor procoagulant. Incidence of venous thromboembolic syndrome differs depending on location of the tumor, being the most frequent in gastrointestinal tumors of the mucous variety, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, breast cancer and leukemias. Among patients with gynecologic malignancy, thromboembolic complications usually coexist with ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer, as these are frequently of the adenomatous tumors of the mucous variety. Patients affected with gynecologic malignancy are at high-risk of thromboembolism not only because of the disease itself, but also due to the fact that pelvic surgery is the type of surgery second only to orthopedic procedures in terms of risk of thromboembolic complications. Furthermore, there are several common risk factors for gynecologic malignancies and venous thromboembolism. Thromboembolic complications significantly contribute to worsen the prognosis of oncologic patients. Standards of management should be developed concerning antithrombotic prevention in the group of patients with gynecologic malignancies at a particularly high risk of venous thromboembolism, as to date there is no consensus as to the optimal way of preventing these complications.
PL
Żylna choroba zakrzepowo-zatorowa (ŻChZZ) jest schorzeniem wieloczynnikowym, a zarazem częstym powikłaniem stwierdzanym u pacjentów z nowotworem złośliwym. Ryzyko zakrzepicy żylnej u pacjentów chorujących na nowotwory wzrasta siedmiokrotnie i jest ono szczególnie wysokie w pierwszych miesiącach po postawieniu diagnozy. Molekularna zależność pomiędzy nowotworami złośliwymi a zakrzepicą została dobrze poznana. Głównym czynnikiem odpowiedzialnym za mechanizmy prokoagulacyjne jest czynnik tkankowy i prokoagulant nowotworowy. Zapadalność na ŻChZZ różni się w zależności od umiejscowienia procesu nowotworowego, a powikłanie to towarzyszy najczęściej guzom układu pokarmowego typu śluzowego, rakowi płuc, jajnika, błony śluzowej trzonu macicy, piersi oraz białaczkom. Wśród pacjentek z rakiem narządu płciowego najczęściej powikłania zakrzepowo-zatorowe towarzyszą rakowi jajnika i rakowi błony śluzowej trzonu macicy, jako że są to często guzy gruczołowe typu śluzowego. Pacjentki cierpiące na raka narządu płciowego znajdują się w grupie podwyższonego ryzyka wystąpienia ŻChZZ nie tylko ze względu na samą chorobą, ale także z uwagi na fakt, że operacje przeprowadzane w miednicy są drugą po operacjach ortopedycznych grupą zabiegów obarczonych największym ryzykiem wystąpienia powikłań zakrzepowych. Ponadto istnieje wiele wspólnych czynników ryzyka dla nowotworów narządu płciowego i ŻChZZ. Problem powikłań zakrzepowo-zatorowych jest istotny także dlatego, że wpływają one w istotny sposób na pogorszenie rokowania u pacjentów z nowotworami. Istnieje więc potrzeba opracowania standardów postępowania w odniesieniu do profilaktyki przeciwzakrzepowej w grupie pacjentek chorujących na nowotwory złośliwe narządu płciowego, jest to bowiem grupa chorych obciążona szczególnie dużym ryzykiem wystąpienia ŻChZZ, a do tej pory nie ma zgodności co do idealnej terapii zapobiegającej tym powikłaniom.
Discipline
Year
Volume
9
Issue
3
Pages
158-168
Physical description
References
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article
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