Breast cancer is the most common result of mutual correlation between hormonal determinants, environmental and genetic. Mechanisms of its development include: high estrogen concentration, impaired glucose metabolism, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1, persistent inflammation and oxidative stress, and impaired cellular apoptosis. The aim of the study was to analyze data on the risk factors of breast cancer, which have been divided according to the period of diagnosis for pre-menopausal and postmenopausal. Due to the fact that a large part of the determinants of the occurrence of this cancer is modifiable, it is necessary to raise the awareness of the population about it. Maintaining proper body mass through the use of a balanced diet rich in calcium, non-starch vegetables and products rich in carotenoids, while limiting alcohol consumption and care for physical activity, are the best prevention of breast cancer. At the same time, further research is needed to explain the uncertainty of current observations.