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2017 | 17 | 1 | 23–33
Article title

Wpływ żeńskich hormonów płciowych na rozwój i przebieg kliniczny stwardnienia rozsianego i jego modeli doświadczalnych

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EN
The role of female sex hormones in multiple sclerosis and its animal models
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease of the central nervous system with a complex immunopathogenesis characterised by inflammation, demyelination and progressive loss of axons. In the studies on the complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, an animal model of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis plays an important role. Clinical and experimental data suggest autoimmune background of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Unfortunately, the pathology of multiple sclerosis is still not fully understood, and the currently available drugs are only able to inhibit the progression of the neurological deficits. Epidemiological data clearly show that gender significantly affects the incidence and course of multiple sclerosis. In both clinical and experimental studies, pregnancy and hormonal treatment with female sex hormones have been shown to influence the number of relapses and the progression of neurological deficits. Abundant data suggesting the role of both sex and pregnancy in multiple sclerosis gave rise to research on the role of sex hormones in this disease and new forms of treatment. In this paper, we have reviewed the available literature regarding the effects of female sex hormones on the course of multiple sclerosis, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens and progestagens. Data from both clinical and experimental studies have been included. Estrogens and progestagens are the two most important groups of female steroid hormones. They are necessary for development of sex organs as well as for fertility and during pregnancy. It is known that these hormones are able to modulate the function of the immune system. In this review, we have focused not only on the immunomodulatory, but also on the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative role of estrogens and progestagens. We have also described the new therapeutic possibilities associated with the hormonal therapy targeting sex hormones.
PL
Stwardnienie rozsiane jest postępującą chorobą ośrodkowego układu nerwowego o złożonej immunopatogenezie, w której występują zapalenie, uszkodzenie mieliny i utrata aksonów. W badaniach doświadczalnych nad patofizjologią stwardnienia rozsianego istotną rolę odgrywa model zwierzęcy – eksperymentalne autoimmunologiczne zapalenie mózgu i rdzenia. Badania kliniczne i doświadczalne wskazują na autoimmunologiczne tło zapalenia w tej chorobie. Niestety, przyczyny rozwoju stwardnienia rozsianego nie zostały dotąd w pełni poznane, a dostępne leki tylko hamują progresję objawów neurologicznych. Z badań epidemiologicznych jednoznacznie wynika, że płeć istotnie wpływa na zachorowalność, a także na przebieg stwardnienia rozsianego. Liczne dane wskazujące na ważną rolę zarówno płci, jak i ciąży były bodźcem do rozwoju badań nad rolą hormonów płciowych w tej chorobie oraz do poszukiwania nowych form terapii. W niniejszej publikacji dokonano przeglądu literatury omawiającej wpływ żeńskich hormonów płciowych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem estrogenów i progestagenów, na przebieg stwardnienia rozsianego. Pod uwagę wzięto dane z badań klinicznych i eksperymentalnych. Estrogeny i progestageny należą do najważniejszych żeńskich hormonów steroidowych. Są niezbędne do prawidłowego rozwoju i różnicowania narządów rozrodczych, a także do utrzymania płodności i ciąży. Od dawna znany jest wpływ tych hormonów na regulację odpowiedzi immunologicznej. W niniejszym opracowaniu szczególną uwagę poświęcono nie tylko działaniu immunomodulacyjnemu, ale również neuroprotekcyjnemu i neuroregeneracyjnemu żeńskich hormonów płciowych. Omówiono też nowe możliwości terapeutyczne związane z terapią hormonalną.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
17
Issue
1
Pages
23–33
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Neurologii i Udarów Mózgu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Uniwersytecki Szpital Kliniczny im. Wojskowej Akademii Medycznej – Centralny Szpital Weteranów, Łódź, Polska
  • Klinika Neurologii i Udarów Mózgu, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Uniwersytecki Szpital Kliniczny im. Wojskowej Akademii Medycznej – Centralny Szpital Weteranów, Łódź, Polska, b.bielecki@skwam.lodz.pl
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