Risk associated with heavy metals in children playground soils of Owerri metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria
Languages of publication
Despite recording the worst heavy metal disaster involving children, there is still scarcity of information on risk assessment of playground soils in Nigeria. In this study, thirty-six soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected from nine playgrounds in Owerri metropolis during the dry and rainy seasons. Five heavy metals were fractionated into six chemical fractions using a modified sequential extraction scheme and mean concentrations quantified by AAnalyst 400 Perkin Elmer AAS. Predictive risk models were used to obtain information about the risk of metals contamination to children using these playgrounds for longer periods. These reveal that there were no significant differences in the mean values of bioconcentration factors of all five metals in the various playgrounds for the two years of data. Even though risk values for both dry and rainy season followed the same trend, it was observed that the Zinc showed highest bioconcentration factors (1.6), average daily dose (230.08 mg/kg/day) and risk (5095593 mg/kg/6years). Over all, playgrounds UPS, TSO and SCP had highest mean risk values, respectively. Though with no clear trend, mobility factors showed a weak and positive correlation with risk. Children in playgrounds of public schools within Owerri metropolis could, therefore, be at risk of Mn, Cu and Zn toxicity problems as projected risk values were high for all studied playgrounds. This assessment could help identify playgrounds with urgent need for heavy metals reduction goals, consequently contributing to preserving children’s health.
- Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE&CC), Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, PMB 2000, Imo State, Nigeria
- Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
-  Aiyesanmi, A. F. (2005). Assessment of heavy metals contamination of Robertkin oil fields soils. Soil. Sci., 15, 42-46
-  Adekunle, M., N.P. Ndahi and D.A. Owolabi (2003). Levels of some Hazardous Trace Metals and Simulated Blood lead levels from Highway soils of South- western Nigeria, International Journal of Enviromental Issues 1, 1-6
-  America Academy of Pediatric Committee on Environmental Health (2003). 2nd ed. Etzel RA, Ed Eik Grove village, IL: America Academy of Pediatrics, children’s Health and the Environment (2005). A global perspective, A source guide for the health sector, WHO. http://www.agilent.com/chem
-  Aliyu, M., Zakari, Y. I, Ibeanu, I. G. E. and Akpa, T. C. (2009). Evaluation of lead concentration levels of children’s playground in Kaduna state schools. Bayero journal of pure and applied sciences, 2(2), 105-109
-  Alloway, B. J and D. C. Ayres (2002). Chemical principles of Environmental pollution, 2nd edition, Blackie Academic and professional, London, 157-245
-  Annao, W. L., Nurdans, D. A. K., Cheung, C. C. Mingh, W. (2008). Heavy Metals Concentrations of Surface Dust from e-Waste Recycling and Its Human Health Implications in Southeast China. Environmental science & technology 42(7), 2671- 2680
-  Bearer, C. F (1995). Enviromental health hazards how children are different from Adults: The future of Children Critical issues for Children and Youths. Vol. 5, No 2. https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/05_02_02.pdf
-  Biasioli M, Grcman H, Kralj T, Madrid F, Dıaz-Barrientos E, Ajmone-Marsan F (2007). Potentially toxic elements contamination in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities. J. Environ. Qual. 36: 70-79
-  Biney, C. A., Amuzu, A. T., Calamari, D., Kaba, N. Mbome, I. L. Naeve, H. Ochumba, P.B.O. Osibanjo, O. Radegonde, V. And Saad, M.A.H. (1994). Review of heavy metals in the African aquatic environment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 28 (2), 134-159
-  Chukuma, C.S (1996). Evaluating Baseline data for Trace elements, pH, organic matter content and bulk density in agricultural soils in Nigeria. Water, air, soil pollution 86: 13-34
-  De-Miguel E, Iribarren I, Chacon E, Ordonez A, Charlesworth S (2007). Risk-based evaluation of the exposure of children to trace elements in playgrounds in Madrid (Spain). Chemosphere 66, 505-513
-  Gee, G.W. and D. Or, (2002). Particle size analysis, part 4. Physical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Book Series No. 5, ASA and SSSA, Madison, W.I., 255-293
-  Goovaerts, P., (2001). Geostatistical modeling of uncertainty in soil science. Geoderma, 103: 3-26
-  Gray, C. W., R. G. McLaren, D. Gunther and S. Sinaj, (2004). An assessment of cadmium availability in cadmium-contaminated soil using isotope exchange kinetics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68: 1210-1217
-  Hawley, J. K. (1985). Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil. Risk Anal., 5, 289-302
-  Hendershot, W. H., H. Lalande and M. Duquette (1993). Soil reaction and exchangeable acidity. In: Carter, M.R. (ed). Soil sampling and methods of soil analysis. Canadian Society of Soil Science, Lewis Publishers, London, 141-145
-  Horsfall, M. (Jnr.) and Spiff A., (2005). Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Diobu River, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Eur. J. Sci. Res. 6(3), 20-36
-  Horsfall, M. Jnr. (2011). Chemistry and heavy metals are Janus faced. An inaugural lecture series no. 81st , Department of pure and Industrial chemistry, university of Port Harcourt, November 2011.
-  Horsfall M. Jnr. and Spiff A.I (2013). Principles of Environmental pollution, and toxicology and waste management. Onyoma Research Publications 16-17.
-  Lu, X., Wang, L., Lei, K., Huang, J. and Zhai, Y. (2009). Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China, J. Hazardous Materials, 161, 1058-1062
-  Manno, E., Varrica, D. and Dongarrá, G. (2006). Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily, Atmos. Environ, 40, 5929-5941
-  Mathieu C, Pieltain F (2003). Chemical analysis of soils. Selected methods. France, pp. 387
-  McLean E. G. (1982). Soil pH and lime requirement. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney (cds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2:Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 199-224.
-  Mielke H. W., Laidlaw M. A. S., Gonzales C. (2010). Lead (Pb) legacy from vehicle traffic in eight California urbanized areas: continuing influence of lead dust on children’s health. Sci Total. Envron. 31(2), 739-747
-  Ndiokwere C. L. (2004). Chemistry and Environment. University of Benin, Inaugural Lecture Series, 73.
-  Needleman, H. L., (1987). Low level lead exposure and children‟s intelligence: A quantitative and critical review of modern studies. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Heavy Metals in the Environment, New Orleans. Volume 1. CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburg. 1-8.
-  Odewande, A. A. and Abimbola, A. F. (2008). Contamination indices and heavy metal concentrations in urban soil of Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria, Environ. Geochem. Health 30, 243-254
-  Onweremadu, E. U. J. U. Amaechi and B. N. Ndukwu (2011). Vertical Distribution of Cadmium and Lead on Soils Affected by Metropolitan Refuse Disposal in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 2 (1): 62-67
-  Orajaka, S.O. 1975. Geology. In: Nigeria in maps: Eastern States. in: Ofomata, G. E. K. (Ed.). Ethiope Publishers. Benin City Nigeria, 5-7.
-  Orisakwe, O. E., Nduka, J. K. , Amadi, C. N., Dike, D. O. and Bede, O. (2012). Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria Chemistry, Central Journal, 6, 77
-  Osakwe S. A. and Egharevba F., (2008). Sequential fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead and chromium, in soils around municipal solid waste dumps in Agbor, Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc. Nig. 33(2), 139-147.
-  Osakwe S. A., (2010). Chemical speciation and mobility of some heavy metals in soils around automobile waste dumpsites in Northern part of Niger Delta, South Central Nigeria, J. of Appl. Sci. and Environ. Manage, 14(4), 123-130
-  Otchere, F. A. (2003). Heavy metals concentrations and burden in the bivalves (Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna) from lagoons in Ghana: Model to describe mechanism of accumulation/excretion. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2 (9), 280-287
-  Paterson, E., Sanka, M. and Clerk, L. (1996). Urban soils as pollutant sinks-A case study from Aberdeen, Scotland, Applied Geochemistry, 11, 129-131
-  Popoola O. E, Bamgbose, O. Okonkwo, Arowolo, O. J., Odukoya T. A. and Popoola, A. O. (2012). Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria, Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 4(4), 434-439
-  Rooney C., Fang-Jie Zhao, and Steve P. McGrath, (2006). Soil factors controlling the expression of copper toxicity to plants in a wide range of European soils. Environ.Toxicol. Chem., 25, 726-732
-  Ruch, R. R., Gluskoter, H. J., and Shimp, N. F. (1973). Occurrence and distribution of potentially volatile trace elements in coal: An interim report, Illinois State Geological Survey, Environmental Geology Notes. 61, 1-43
-  Saad, M. A. H, El-Rayis, O. A and El-Nady, F. (1981). Occurrence of organic matter and heavy metals in sediments from the Mediterranean. In Management of Industrial Wastewater in Developing Nations. Proceedings of the International Symposium, Alexandria, March 1981, edited by D.Stuckey and A. Hamza. Oxford, Pergamon Press. 127-139
-  Saad, M. A. H. and Fahmy, M. A. (1985). Occurrence of some heavy metals in surficial sediments from the Damietta estuary of the Nile. Journ. Etud. Pollut. CIESM, 7: 405-407
-  Schwartz, J. (1994). Low-level lead exposure and children’s IQ: A metal analysis and search for a threshold, Archives of Environmental Research and Toxicology, 59, 42-55
-  Stutter, M. I., L. E. Deeks and M. F. Billet, (2004). Spatial variability in soil ion exchange chemistry in a granitic upland catchment. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68: 1304-1314.
-  Ure A., Quavaliviller P., Muntall H. and Griepink B., (1983). Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments, An account of the improvement and harmonization of auspices of the BCR of the CEC, Int. Anal. Chem, 51, 135-151
-  US EPA, Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment) Final. EPA/540/R/99/005 OSWER 9285.7-02EP PB99-963312 July 2004, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation U.S. Environmen- tal Protection Agency Washington, DC, 2004.
-  U.S. EPA. Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA/600/P-95/002Fa,b,c; Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development: Washington, DC, 1997.
-  Verla, E. N, A. W Verla, C. A Ike-Amadi and S. A Odoemelam. Heavy Metals Status in Soils of Industrial and Residential Areas of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A Paper In Proceedings of the of 35th Annual International Conference of Chemical society of Nigeria, at Federal University of technology Owerri, Imo State in 2012, 1, 342-347
-  WHO, (World Health Organization) (2006). World Reference Base for Heavy Metals Permissible Limits for Soil and Water Resou.
-  World Health Organization (WHO) (2003). Children and Environmental health risks. Geneva: WHO. http://www/who.int/eeh/risk/en
-  Wilson C. A., Cresser M. S., Davidson D. A. (2006). Sequential element extraction of soils from abandoned farms: An investigation of the partitioning of anthropogenic element inputs from historic land use. J. Environ. Monitor. 8, 439-444
-  Wong, C. S. C.; Wu, S. C. (2007). Duzgoren-Aydin, N. S.; Aydin, A.; Wong, M. H. Trace metal contamination of sediments in an e-waste processing village in China. Environ. Pollut., 145, 434-442.
-  Wong, J. W. C.; Mak, N. K. (1997). Heavy metal pollution in children playgrounds in Hong Kong and its health implications. Environ. Technol. 18, 109-115
-  Wong, M. H., Wu, S. C., Deng, W. J., Yu, X. Z., Luo, Q., Leung, A. O. W., Wong, C. S. C., Luksemburg, W. J., Wong, A. S. (2007). Export of toxic chemicals - a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic waste recycling. Environ. Pollut. 149(2), 131-140
-  Woodworth, J. C. And Pascoe, V. (1982). Cadmium toxicity to rainbow trout, Salmon gairdneri Richardson. A study of eggs and alevins. J. Fish. Biol. 21, 47-57
-  Xiano, X. and Biu C. (1993). Trace Metal Analysis on Polluted Sediments. Environmental Technological letters, 1, 506-517
-  Yu, X. Z., Gao, Y., Wu, S. C., Zhang, H. B., Cheung, K. C. (2006). Wong, M. H. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils at Guiyu area of China, affected by recycling of electronic waste using primitive technologies. Chemosphere, 65, 1500-1509
-  Zahir, F., Rizwi, S. J., Haq, S. K. and Khan, R. H. (2005). Low dose mercury toxicity and human health. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 20, 351-360 141
-  Zhu, W, B. Bian and L.Li (2008). Heavy metal contamination of road – deposition sedimemt in a medium size city of china, Environment Monitoring and Assessment, 147 (1-3), 171-181
-  Zerrouqi, Z., Shaa, M., Oujidi, M., Elkharmouz, M., Bengamra, S. and Zerrouqi, A. (2008). Assessment of cement’s dust impact on the soil using principal component analysis and GIS. Int. J. of Environmental Science Technology, 591, 125-134
Publication order reference