Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), functional superfood for today’s world: A Review
Languages of publication
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) was known to the Incas as “the mother of all grains” and was believed to be sacred. It has been consumed in the form of food as well as medicine for the last 5000 years. Quinoa, a pseudo cereal, is recognized as one of the world’s healthiest foods due to its high nutritional value along with its potential to cater various health benefits. Being a good source of complete protein (contains all the nine essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, fibre and antioxidants, it is considered as “superfood”. Quinoa also helps to reduce the risk of various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, some cancer, high blood pressure, obesity and is also a good option for people who are allergic to certain food groups. Its biodiversity and ability to sustain in adverse climatic conditions makes it an ideal crop to cultivate worldwide especially in under developing countries of Asia and Africa, where food production is threatened by global climatic changes. Hence, it is a demand of present world to increase the awareness regarding the various functional benefits of quinoa to combat one of the world’s major crises, that is, hunger and malnutrition.
-  The obesity epidemic and its impact on hypertension. Nguyen T, Lau DCW. Can J Cardiol 28(3) (2012) 326-333.
-  Diabetes: a 21st century challenge. Zimmet PZ, Magliano DJ, Herman WH, Shaw JE. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2 (2014) 56-64.
-  Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), from nutritional value to potential health benefits: An integrated review. Gordillo-Bastidas E, Diaz-Rizzolo DA, Roura E, Massanes T, Gomis R. J Nutr Food Sci 6(3) (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000497
-   Nutritional facts and potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) an ancient Andean grain: a review. Vega-Gálvez A, Miranda M, Vergara J, Uribe E, Puente I, Martínez E A. J Sci Food Agric 90 (2010) 2541-2547.
-  Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods. Cooper R. J Tradit Complement Med (2015) 138-143.
-  The world’s healthiest foods-quinoa. http://whfoods.org//genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=142
-  Le Quinoa: Les Enjeux d’une Conquete.Bazile D. Paris: Editions Quae.112.
-  An ordinary classification for the families of flowering plants. APG. Ann Mo Bot Gard. 85(4) (1998) 531-553.
-   Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis.Kadereit G, Borsch T, Weising K, Freitag H. Int J Plant Sci.164(6) (2003):959-986.
-  Genetic diversity and comparision of physiochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) genotypes cultivated in Chile. Miranda M, Vega-Gálvez A ,Martínez E, López J, Rodriquez MJ, Henriquez K, Fuentes F. Cienc Technol Aliment Campinas. 32(4) (2012) 835-843.
-  Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).Gomez-Caravaca AM, Iafelice G, Verardo V, Marconi E, Caboni MF. Food Chem. 157 (2014) 174-178.
-  Ecdysteroids from Chenopodium quinoa Willd,an ancient Andean crop of high nutritional value.Kumpun S, Maria A, Crouzet S, Evrard-Todeschi N, Girault J P, Lafont R. Food Chem. 125(4) (2011) 1226-1234.
-  Whole grains and health: from theory to practice- highlights of the grains for health foundation’s whole grain summit. Mckeown NM, Jacques PF, Sael CJ, De Vries J, Jonnalagadda SS, Clemens R,Webb D, Murphy LA, Van Klinken JW, Topping D, Murray R, Degenette D, Marquart L F. J Nutr. 143(5) (2013) 744S-758S.
-  Innovations in health value and functional food development of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).Graf BL, Silva PR, Rojo LE, Herrera JD, Baldeon ME, Raskin I. Comprehensive reviews in Food Sci and Food Safety. 14(4) (2015): 431-445.
-  Quinoa-March grain of the month.The whole grain council. http://wholegrainscouncil.org/whole-grains-101/easy-ways-enjoy-whole-grains/grain-month-calendar/quinoa-%E2%80%93-march-grain-month
-  Calories in quinoa, uncooked. https://www.caloriecount.com/calories-quinoa-i20035
-  Quinoa- A review. Jancurova M, Minarovicova L, Dandar A. Czech J. Food Sci. 27(2) (2009) 71-79.
-  Chemical composition and protein quality of some local Andean food sources. Gross R, Koch F, Malaga I, De Miranda A F, Schoeneberger H, Trugo LC. Food Chem. 34(1) (1989) 25-34.
-  The content of proteic and nonproteic (free and protein-bound) tryptophan in quinoa and cereal flours. Comai S, Bertazzo A, Bailoni L, Zancato M, Costa CVL, Allergi G. Food Chem. 100(4) (2007) 1350-1355.
-  Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Koziol MJ. J of Food Composition. 5(1) (1992): 35-68.
-  Nutritional quality of protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) Seeds. Ruales J, Nair BM. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 42(1) (1992) 1-11.
-  Digestibility and protein quality of quinoa: comparative study of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds and flour in children. De Lopez Romana G, Graham GG, Rojas M, MacLean Jr WC. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 31(3) (1981) 485-497
-  Dietary substitutions for refined carbohydrate that show promise for reducing risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Maki KC, Phillips AK. J Nutr 145 (2015) 159S-163S.
-  Dairy nutrients and their effect on inflammatory profile in molecular studies. Da Silva MS, Rudkowska I. Mol Nutr Food Res 59 (2015) 1249-1263
-  Characterisation of phenolic, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd.genotypes. Tang Y, Li X, Zhang B, Chen PX Liu R, et al. Food Chem. 166 (2015) 380-388.
-  Benefits of quinoa: The supergrain of the future http://www.forbes.com/sites/juliewilcox/2012/06/26/7-benefits-of-quinoa-the-supergrain-of-the-future
-  Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Kaziol M. J Food Composition And Analysis.5 (1992): 35-68.
-  Quinoa: Nutritional, functional and antinutritional aspects. Mardini Filho AM, Ribeiro Pirozi M, Da Silva Borges JT, Pinheiro Sant Ana HM, Paes Chaves JB, et al. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. (2015) (ahead of print). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114306
-  Oxalate contents of species of the Chenopodiaceae families. Siener R, Honow R, Seidler A, Voss C, Hesse A. Food Chem 98 (2006) 220-224.
-  Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-b9-folic-acid
-  Characterization of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd.genotypes.Food Chem. Tang Y, Li X, Chen PX, Zhang B, Hernandez M, et al. Food Chem. 174 (2015) 502-508.
-  Evaluation of Indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean Region for Antidiabetes and Anti Hypertension Potential Using In Vitro Methods. Galvez Ranilla L, Apostolidis E, Genoveses MI, Lajolo FM, Shetty K. Med Food. 12 (2009): 704-713.
-  Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in Andean indigenous grains:quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa),kaniwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus).Repo-Carrasco-Valencia R, Hellstrom JK, Pihlava JM, Mattila PH. Food Chem. 120(1) (2010): 128-133.
-  Anthocyanins, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in amaranth and quinoa seeds and sprouts during their growth. Pasko P, Barton H, Zachwieja Z. Food Chem. 115(3) (2009): 994-998.
-  Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) as a source of dietary fibre and other functional components. Mar RA, Valencia C, Serna LA. Cienc. Technol. Aliment. Campinas 31(1) (2011) 225-230.
-  Fibre and probiotics: mechanism and health benefits. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/
-  Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fibre. Salvin JL. J Am Diet Assoc. 109(2) (2009) 350.
-  Quinoa: Health benefits and nutrition facts. http://www.livescience.com/50400-quinoa-nutrition-facts.html
-  Understanding celiac disease. http://www.celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2
-  The gluten-free diet: safety and nutritional quality. Saturni L, Ferretti G, Bacchetti T. Nutrients. 2 (2010) 16-34.
-  Nutritional aspects of gluten- free products. Pellegrini N, Agostoni C. J Sci Food Agric. 95 (2014) 1-6.
-  The effect of substituting alternative grains in the diet on the nutritional profile of the gluten- free diet. Lee AR, Ng DL, Dave E, Ciaccio EJ, Green PH. J Hum Nutr Diet 22(4) (2009): 359-363.
-  Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking. Jubete LA, Wijngaard H, Arendt EK, Gallagher E. Food Chem. 119(2) (2010) 770-778.
-  International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values:2008. Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K ,Brand Miller JC. Diabetes Care. 31 (2008): 2281-2283.
-  Quinoa & other Glycemic Index. http://www.livestrong.com/article/258598-quinoa-the-glycemic-index/
-  Functional and bioactive properties of quinoa and amaranth. Asao M, Watanabe K. Food Sci Technol Res 16 (2010) 163-168.
-  How long does quinoa last? Shelf life, Storage, Expiration-Eat by Date http://www.eatbydate.com/grains/quinoa/
-  15 Creative Quinoa Recipes. http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20842245,00.html
Publication order reference