Comparative study of the properties of yellow and brown Cyperus esculentus L.
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The present research accounts for the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of yellow and brown Cyperus esculentus, which were subjected to standard chemical and biochemical analysis. The results obtained from the analysis of yellow tiger nut showed the following phytochemical properties: anthocyanin 0.82 ± 0.02 µg/ml, oxalate 1.43 ± 0.05 µg/ml, tannin 12.22 ± 0.10 µg/ml, rutin 39.19 ± 0.29 µg/ml, phenol 10.94 ± 0.05 µg/ml, lunamarine 38.99 ± 0.07 µg/ml, saponin 44.67 ± 0.15 µg/ml, ribalinidine 1.35 ± 0.03 µg/ml, phytate 0.33 ± 0.01 µg/ml, catechin 48.29 ± 0.04 µg/ml, and kaempferol 38.59 ± 0.02 µg/ml. The brown tiger nut showed the presence of the phytochemicals with values as: anthocyanin 0.01 ± 0.00 µg/ml, oxalate 2.66 ± 0.02 µg/ml, tannin 12.67 ± 0.04 µg/ml, rutin 43.99 ± 0.05 µg/ml, phenol 11.02 ± 0.10 µg/ml, lunamarine 39.66 ± 0.03 µg/ml, saponin 47.79 ± .06 µg/ml, ribalinidine 1.21 ± 0.04 µg/ml, phytate 0.28 ± 0.03 µg/ml, catechin 46.77 ± 0.05 µg/ml, and kaempferol 38.34 ± 0.15 µg/ml. The observed level of mineral elements in the tiger nut is in the increasing order of zinc > sodium > iron > copper > calcium > magnesium > potassium for yellow tiger nut, and for brown tiger nut the order is zinc > sodium > iron > copper > calcium > magnesium > potassium. The values of physical and chemical properties recorded for yellow tiger nut is in the increasing order of moisture > ash content > crude protein > crude fiber > crude fat > carbohydrate, the increasing order for brown tiger nut shows ash content > moisture > crude protein > crude fiber > crude fat > carbohydrate. This indicates that tiger nuts contain elevated carbohydrate levels, crude fat and protein. From the data obtained, the high potassium to low sodium ratio of the two species of tiger nuts consequently might be imperative in diet recommendations for patients with high blood pressure (high BP) and edema as well. The investigated tiger nut varieties are rich sources of the phytochemicals, oil and contain moderate amounts of protein. They are also rich sources of fiber and carbohydrates. The phytochemical constituents of the tiger nuts are important and could be of high commercial significance in both, research institutes and pharmaceuticals companies for manufacturing of new drugs and for therapeutic applications.
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- Department of Chemistry, Imo State University Owerri, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria
- Department of Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
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