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Journal
2019 | 6 | 4 | 244-250
Article title

Niedowidzenie – terapie standardowe kontra nowoczesne

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Title variants
EN
Amblyopia – standard or modern therapy
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
According to the World Health Organization, amblyopia and associated uncorrected refractive errors are the most common causes of visual disorders. Amblyopia is defined as the reduction of the best-corrected visual acuity in one or, less frequently, in both eyes. It is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs in childhood and results in the discontinuation of normal cortical visual pathways. Until recently, it was believed that due to the lack of sufficient plasticity of the central nervous system in adults, amblyopia is incurable after the end of the critical period, i.e. around 7 years of age. However, recent research results undermined this view, revealing underestimated recovery potential even in adulthood. Traditional methods of amblyopia treatment include correction of refractive errors and stimulation of the visually impaired eye by covering the dominant eye, most often by obturation or pharmacological penalisation with atropine. Preliminary results of research on modern methods of therapy, such as video games, perceptual learning or dichoptic training, provide opportunities not only to improve visual acuity, but also to relieve other visual deficiencies associated with ambliopia, such as reduced sensitivity to contrast or spatial vision.
PL
Według danych Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia niedowidzenie oraz związane z nim nieskorygowane wady refrakcji stanowią najczęstszą przyczynę zaburzeń układu wzrokowego. Niedowidzenie definiuje się jako redukcję najlepiej skorygowanej ostrości wzroku jednego lub rzadziej obojga oczu. Jest to schorzenie neurorozwojowe, pojawia się w dzieciństwie i powoduje przerwanie prawidłowego szlaku korowych dróg wzrokowych. Do niedawna panował pogląd, że z powodu braku wystarczającej plastyczności ośrodkowego układu nerwowego osób dorosłych niedowidzenie jest nieuleczalne po zakończeniu krytycznego okresu, ok. 7. r.ż. Jednak ostatnie wyniki badań podważyły ten pogląd, ujawniając wcześniej niedoceniany potencjał powrotu do zdrowia nawet w wieku dorosłym. Tradycyjne metody leczenia niedowidzenia obejmują korekcję wad refrakcji oraz stymulację oka niedowidzącego przez zasłonięcie oka dominującego, najczęściej przez obturację lub farmakologiczną penalizację atropiną. Wstępne wyniki badań nad nowoczesnymi metodami terapii, takimi jak gry wideo, uczenie percepcyjne czy terapia obuoczna, dają szanse nie tylko na poprawę ostrości wzroku w oku niedowidzącym, ale także na złagodzenie innych deficytów wzrokowych towarzyszących niedowidzeniu, takich jak zmniejszona wrażliwość na kontrast czy widzenia przestrzennego
Discipline
Publisher

Journal
Year
Volume
6
Issue
4
Pages
244-250
Physical description
Contributors
  • 1. Katedra Okulistyki, Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie. 2. Instytut Okulistycznych Badań Naukowych w Poznaniu
References
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Document Type
article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-e6fd7c53-dba8-40a7-b48e-71e55f79d3d6
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