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2018 | 18 | 3 | 290–295
Article title

Terapia akceptacji i zaangażowania w leczeniu zaburzeń lękowych w relacji do klasycznej terapii poznawczo-behawioralnej

Title variants
Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders in relation to classical cognitive-behavioural therapy
Languages of publication
Acceptance and commitment therapy is an approach arising on the basis of post-Skinnerian behaviour analysis, belonging to the third wave of cognitive-behavioural therapies which have become increasingly popular within the last two decades. The aim of the article is to present the theoretical basis and the application of the acceptance and commitment therapy in treating anxiety disorders as compared to the classical cognitive-behavioural therapy consistent with the general cognitive model (Beck and Haigh, 2014). The text introduces the theoretical basis for the analysed approach, that is the relational frame theory and its implications for the understanding of anxiety reactions. An exemplary description of an anxiety reaction based on the language of the relational frame theory is also presented. The general assumptions of the acceptance and commitment therapy are discussed, as well as the model of mental disorders used in this strand of therapy, its basic techniques and strategies used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and an outline of the treatment protocol together with the therapeutic techniques helpful at each stage. The conclusions of the meta-analyses of studies on the effectiveness of the acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of various anxiety disorders are gathered here, as well. The similarities and differences between the approach to the therapy of anxiety disorders in the classical cognitive-behavioural therapy and the acceptance and commitment therapy are discussed. Furthermore, guidelines have been included to facilitate the practical application of acceptance and commitment techniques, as well as the theoretical basis conducive for the integration of this approach with the classical cognitive-behavioural therapy.
Terapia akceptacji i zaangażowania to podejście powstałe na gruncie postskinnerowskiej analizy zachowania, należące do trzeciej fali terapii poznawczo-behawioralnych, które w ostatnich dwóch dekadach coraz bardziej zyskują na popularności. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie podstaw teoretycznych oraz zastosowania terapii akceptacji i zaangażowania w leczeniu zaburzeń lękowych w relacji do klasycznej terapii poznawczo-behawioralnej, zgodnej z ogólnym modelem poznawczym (Beck i Haigh, 2014). W tekście zaprezentowano podstawę teoretyczną analizowanego podejścia, czyli teorię ram relacyjnych (relational frame theory), oraz jej implikacje dla rozumienia reakcji lękowej. Przedstawiono również przykładowy opis reakcji lękowej oparty na języku teorii ram relacyjnych. Omówione zostały ogólne założenia terapii akceptacji i zaangażowania, model zaburzeń psychicznych stosowany w tym nurcie, podstawowe techniki i strategie, z których korzysta się w leczeniu zaburzeń lękowych, a także zarys protokołu leczenia wraz z technikami terapeutycznymi pomocnymi na poszczególnych etapach. Zebrano też wnioski z metaanaliz badań nad skutecznością terapii akceptacji i zaangażowania w leczeniu różnych zaburzeń lękowych. Omówiono podobieństwa i różnice między podejściem do terapii zaburzeń lękowych w klasycznej terapii poznawczo- -behawioralnej oraz w terapii akceptacji i zaangażowania. Uwzględniono ponadto wskazówki ułatwiające praktyczne zastosowanie technik akceptacji i zaangażowania oraz podstawy teoretyczne pomocne w integracji tego podejścia z klasyczną terapią poznawczo-behawioralną.

Physical description
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