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2016 | 48 | 41-51
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Terrorism in Europe – from the definition to the present day

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The description undertaken attempts to investigate the threat of Islamic terrorism in Europe. This problem is still real, because the countries of the Old Continent participating in the so-called the war against global terrorism already experienced terrorist attacks on their territories. The main objective of this work is to determine the capabilities of the terrorist threat by examining the essence of the phenomenon of modern Islamic terrorism in the European area and the assessment of the threat. During the development of this description the author used different research methods, and the main criterion for their selection was a rationalization of the course and the possibility of obtaining objective results. Method of analysis and detailed examination of documents has been used as a gateway and adapted in the optimal way to achieve the desired result in the form of leaked conclusions. The leading element to the entire research process was a critical analysis of the literature on the subject of research. Literature and the sources from which were used in the study can be divided into several thematic segments: the history of Islam and the sources of Islamic fundamentalism, history and theory of terrorism, the sources of law in the context of counter-terrorism and policies in the field of counter-terrorism and the fight against this phenomenon. Literature research in the field of scientific studies in the context of the presented thematic sections, characterized by diverse accessibility, which consists of a number of items related to the Muslim religion and Islamic fundamentalism, terrorism and the disciplines of law, as well as occurring much less frequently highly specialized positions describing the security system of anti-terrorist.
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  • Elblag University of Humanities and Economy, Elblag, Poland
  • [1] Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, Published by Kazi Publications, Exeter 2003, pp. 23-31.
  • [2] This concept is introduced to terminology by Michael Scheuer, an officer and CIA, head of the so-called Bin Ladin Unit since its founding in 1996. See: Scheuer, Michael, Through Our Enemies’ Eyes. Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam and the Future of America, Published by Brassey’s, Washington 2002, pp. 55-62.
  • The Arabic word "jihad" is often translated as "holy war," but in a purely linguistic sense, the word " jihad" means struggling or striving.
  • As-Siba’ee, Mustafa, The Sunnah and its role in Islamic Legislation, Published by International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh 2008; Spencer, Robert, Stealth Jihad: How Radical Islam is Subverting America without Guns or Bombs, Published by Regnery Publishing, Washington 2008; Spencer, Robert, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Published by Regnery Publishing, Washington 2005.
  • [3] Tibi, Bassam, The Challenge of Fundamentalism. Political Islam and the New World Disorder, Published by The Regents of the University of California, Los Angeles 1998, pp. 23 and next; see also Mernissi, Fatema, Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World, Published by Basic Books, New York 2002.
  • [4] Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, Published by Kazi Publications, Exeter 2003, pp. 34-37.
  • [5] Heisbourg, François, The Changing Strategic Landscape, Published by Archon, London 1989.
  • [6] Baylis, John, Wirtz, James J., Gray, Colin S., Strategy in the Contemporary World, Published by Oxford University Press, Hampshire 2013; see also Collins, Alan, Contemporary Security Studies, Published by Oxford University Press, Hampshire 2016.
  • [7] Country Reports on Terrorism 2008, Published by United States Department of State Publication Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism Released, April 2009.
  • [8] Brzeziński Zbigniew, Second Chance: Three Presidents and the Crisis of American Superpower, Published by Basic Books, New York 2007, pp. 113 and next.
  • [9] Levitt, Matthew, Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, Published by The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Virginia 2006.
  • [10] Jongman, Albert J., Schmid, Alex P., Political terrorism. A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data ba¬ses, theories and literature, Published by Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick 2005; see also Hirsch-Ho¬efler, Sivan, Weinberg, Leonard, Pedahzur, Ami, The challen¬ges of conceptualizing terrorism, Terrorism and Political Violence, Published by CQ Press, Washington 2004, vol. 16, No 4.
  • [11] Schmid, Alex P., Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism, Terrorism and Political Violence, Published by CQ Press, Washington 2004, vol. 16, No 4.
  • [12] Schmid, Alex P., Handbook of Terrorism Research, Published by Routledge, London 2011, pp. 86-87.
  • [13] The Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice, San Francisco 1945.
  • [14] Baylis, John, Wirtz, James J., Gray, Colin S., op.cit., pp. 174.
  • [15] Horgan John, The Psychology of Terrorism (Political Violence), Published by Routledge, New York 2005, pp. 21 and next.
  • [16] Gearty, Conor, Terrorism, Published by Ashgate Dartmouth, Aldershot 1996; see also Gearty, Conor Escaping Hobbes: liberty and security for our democratic (not anti-terrorist) age, Published by LSE law, society and economy working papers, Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science, London 2010.
  • [17] Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, Published by Kazi Publications, Exeter 2003, pp. 23 and next.
  • [18] Ibidem, pp. 23 and next.
  • [19] Hoffman, Bruce, Inside terrorism, Published by Columbia University Press, New York 2006, pp. 24 and next.
  • [20] Patterns of Global Terrorism, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State;
  • [21] Gearty, Conor, Human rights, civil society and the challenge of terrorism, Published by Seminar report, Centre for the Study of Human Rights, London School of Economics and Political Science, London 2008.
  • [22] Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
  • [23] Convention (V) respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907.
  • [24] Hoffman, Bruce, op. cit.
  • [25] Thomas, Gordon, Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, Published by St. Martin’s Press, New York 1999, pp. 277 and next.
  • [26] Rushdie, Salman, The Satanic Verses: A Novel, Published by Random House Trade Paperback, New York 2008.
  • [27] Sharia is the basic Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation.
  • [28] Sheldon, Rose Mary, Spies of the Bible, Published by Greenhill Books, London 2007, pp. 252 and next.
  • [29] Rees Phil, Dining with Terrorists, Published by Pan Books, London 2006, pp. 232 and next.
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