Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2016 | 50 | 197-238
Article title

Seasonal diversity of butterflies with reference to habitat heterogeneity, larval host plants and nectar plants at Taki, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India

Title variants
Languages of publication
Understanding the significance of butterflies in an ecosystem as an environmental healthy indicator and pollination of flowering plants is crucial to achieve sustainability and conservation of floral diversity. The aim of the study is to investigate the butterfly species diversity and abundance and compare the relationship between physical factors and butterfly species at Taki, North 24 Parganas. Survey of six habitats, each containing specific ecological and socio economic profile was conducted. Diversity varies among habitats. Seasonal parameters also play vital roles as the distribution factors for local butterflies. A checklist is made comprising a total of 51 butterfly species belonging to 5 families. Sixty eight species of plants belonging to 28 families served as the larval host plants and 36 species of plants belonging to 20 families served as the nectar plants for butterflies. Maximum number of individuals found at SC (Surrounding College, College Ground, College Hostel Ground) site. The highest species richness and abundance are reported during the post monsoon. The abundance pattern is correlated to the foliage and nutritional support provided by the host plants, both at developmental and at adult stages. Nymphalidae is the most dominant family with 37% of the total number of species.
Physical description
  • Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Bethune College, Govt. of West Bengal, 181, Bidhan Sarani, Kolkata – 700006, West Bengal, India
  • Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Barasat Government College, Barasat, Kolkata – 700124, West Bengal, India
  • [1] Altermatt, F.,and Pearse, I. S. 2011. Similarity and specialization of the larval versus adult diet of European butterflies and moths. American Naturalist, 178: 372-382.
  • [2] Anthes, N., Fartmann, T., Hermann, G. and Kaule, G. 2003. Combining larval habitat quality and metapopulation structure - the key for successful management of pre-alpineEuphydryasaurinia colonies. Journal of Insect Conservation, 7: 175-185.
  • [3] Bakowski, M. and Doku-Marfo, E. 2009. A Rapid biodiversity Assessment of the Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang River Forest Reserves. Conservation International, 30-33.
  • [4] Barlow, J., Overal, W. L., Araujo, I. S., Gardner, T. A. and Carlos, A. P. 2007. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44: 1001-1012.
  • [5] Bashar, M. A., 2013. Forests of Bangladesh and butterfly biodiversity, Environmental Biology and Biodiversity Laboratory, Dhaka University
  • [6] Betrus, C. J., Fleishman, E. and Blair, R. B. 2005. Cross-taxonomic potential and spatial transferability of an umbrella species index. Journal of Environmental Management, 74: 79-87.
  • [7] Bhardwaj, M., Uniyal, V. P., Sanyal, A. K. and Singh, A. P. 2012. Butterfly communities along an elevational gradient in the Tons velly, Western Himalayas: Implications of rapid assessment for insect conservation. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 15: 207-217.
  • [8] Bhuyan, M., Bhattacharya, P. R. and Kanjilal, P. B. 2002. Butterflies of the Regional Research Laboratory Campus, Jorhat, Assam. Zoo’s Print Journal, 20: 1910-1911.
  • [9] Blair, R. B. 1999. Birds and butterflies along an urban gradient: surrogate taxa for assessing biodiversity? Ecological Applications, 9: 164-170.
  • [10] Blair, R.B. and Launer, A.E. 1997. Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological. Conservation: 80: 113-125.
  • [11] Boggs, C. L. and Nieminen, M. 2004. On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology (ed. by P. R. Ehrlich and I. Hanski). Checkerspot reproductive biology Oxford University Press, Oxford pp. 92-111.
  • [12] Bonebrake, T. C., Ponisio, L. C., Boggs, C. L. and Ehrlich, P. R. 2010. More than just indicators: A review of tropical butterfly ecology and conservation. Biological Conservation, 143(8): 1831-1841.
  • [13] Chowdhury, S. and Chowdhury, D. 2006. On the Butterfly Fauna of Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary, West Bengal. Bionotes, 8(1):20.
  • [14] Chowdhury, S. and Das, R. P. 2007. Diversity of Butterflies in the Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bionotes, 9(4): 131-132.
  • [15] Chowdhury, S. and Soren, R. 2011. Butterfly Fauna of East Calcutta Wetlands, West Bengal, India. Checklist, 7(6): 700-703.
  • [16] Chowdhury, S., 2014, Butterflies of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, Eastern India, a preliminary survey of their taxonomic diversity, ecology and their conservation. Jornal of Threatened Taxa, 6 (8), 6082-6092.
  • [17] Courtney, S. P. and Shapiro, A. M. 1986. The ecology and behavior of the high Andean butterfly Hypsochilawa genknechti (Lepidoptera : Pieridae). Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ, 21: 169-187.
  • [18] Cowley, M. J. R., Thomas, C. D., R. J. Wilson, J. L., Leon-Córtes, Gutiérrez, D. and Bulman, C. R. 2001. The density and distribution of British butterflies. II. An assessment of mechanisms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70: 426-441.
  • [19] Dafni, A. 1992. Pollination Ecology: A Practical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 250 pp.
  • [20] Dwari, S. and Mondal,A. K. 2015.Buttterflies diversity of agricultural fields of Howrah district, West Bengal, India with special reference to their host plants in agroecosystem International Journal of Science and Nature, 6(3): 389-396.
  • [21] Ehrlich, P. R. and Raven P. H. 1964. Butterflies and plants: A study in coevolution. Evolution, 18: 586-608.
  • [22] Ehrlich, P. R. and Hanski, I. 2004. On the wings of checker spots: A model system for population biology. Oxford University Press, pp. 408.
  • [23] Emmel, T. C. and Leck ,C. F. 1970. Seasonal changes in organisation of tropical rainforest butterfly populations in Panama. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 8(4): 133-152.
  • [24] Evans, W. H. 1932. The identification of Indian butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society, pp. 464.
  • [25] Fabbri, R. and Scaravelli, D. 2002. Indaginepreliminare suiLepidotteridiurnilungosiepi in aziendeagricolebiologichedel forlivese e del cesenate.- Quaderno di Studi e Notizie diStoria Naturaledella Romagna, 16: 81-94.
  • [26] Fahrig, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 34, 487-515.
  • [27] Fahrig, L. 2007. Non-optimal animal movement in human-altered landscapes. Functional Ecology, 21: 1003-1015.
  • [28] Fordyce, J. A. and Nice, C. C. 2003. Variation in butterfly egg adhesion: Adaptation to level host plant senescence characteristics? Ecology Letters. 6: 23-27.
  • [29] Fred, M. S. and Brommer, J. E. 2009. Resources influence dispersal and population structure in an endangered butterfly. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 2(3): 176-182.
  • [30] Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T. E., Bierregaard, R. O., Malcolm, J. R., Stouffer, P. C, Vasconceleos, H. L., Laurance, W. F., Zimmerman., T., M. and Borges, S. 1999. Matrix habitat and species richness in tropical forest butterflies. Biological Conservation, 91: 223-229.
  • [31] Gaston, K. J., Warren, P. H., Thompson, K. and Smith, R. M. 2005. Urban domestic gardens (IV) : The extent of resource and its associated features. Biodiversity Conservation, 14: 3327-3349.
  • [32] Ghosh, S. and Sharif, S. 2005.Butterfly diversity in and around urban Kolkata. Rec. zool. Surv. India,104 (Part 3-4): 111-119.
  • [33] Ghosh, A. and Mukherjee, T. 2016. Butterfly diversity at suburban green patch: Asustainable approach towards conservation. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies,4(2): 34-39.
  • [34] Ghosh, S. and Saha, S. 2016. Mimetic relationships of butterflies commonly found at Taki, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal . World Scientific News, 45(2): 292-306.
  • [35] Gilbert, L. E. 1984. The biology of butterfly communities. The biological butterflies. Academic Press, Landon 41-54.
  • [36] Gilbert, L. E. and Singer, M. C. 1975. Butterfly ecology. Annual Review Ecological Systematics, 6: 365-397.
  • [37] Gravesa, S. D., Arthur, M., and Shapiro, B. 2003 Exotics as host plants of the California butterfly fauna. Biological Conservation, 110: 413-433.
  • [38] Gutierrez, D. and Mendez, R. 1995. Phenology of butterflies in a mountain area in northern Iberian Peninsula. Ecography, 18: 209-216.
  • [39] Hammond, P. C. and Miller, J. C. 1998. Comparison of the Biodiversity of Lepidoptera within three forested ecosystems. Journal of Conservation Biology and Biodiversity, 91, 323-328.
  • [40] Haribal, M. 1992. The butterflies of Sikkim Himalayas and their natural history. Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation (SNCF), pp. 217.
  • [41] Haq, S. M. A. 2011. Urban green spaces and an integrative approach to sustainable environment. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2 : 601-608.
  • [42] Hortal, J., Bello, F., Alexandre, J., Diniz-Filho, F., Lewinsohn, T.M., Lobo, J.M. and Ladle, R.J. 2015. Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge of biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 46: 523-549.
  • [43] Hossain, M., 2014. Checklist of butterflies of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Journal of Entomology and Zoological Studies, 2(1): 29-32.
  • [44] IUCN. 2015. Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.
  • [45] Jervis, M. A., Boggs, C. L. and Peter, N. F. 2005. Egg maturation strategy and its associated trade-offs: A synthesis focusing on Lepidoptera. Ecological Entomology, 30(4): 359-375.
  • [46] Kathiresan, K., and Bingham, B. L. 2001. Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology, 40: 81-251.
  • [47] Kearns, C. A. and Inouye, D.W. 1997. Pollinators, flowering plants, and conservation biology. BioScience, 47: 297-300.
  • [48] Kehimkar, I. 2000. Common Indian wild flowers. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 22-41 pp.
  • [49] Kehimkar, I. 2008. The book of Indian butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Mumbai, 1-496 pp.
  • [50] Kenneth, A. Pivnick, T. and Jeremy, 1987 . Puddling in butterflies : Sodium affects reproductive success in Thymelicus lineola.. Physiological Entomology, 12: 461-472
  • [51] Khandokar, F., Rashid, M., Das, D. K. and Hossain, M. 2013.Species diversity and abundance of butterflies in the Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. Journal of Biological Science, 2(2): 121-127.
  • [52] Kocher, S. D. and Williams, E. H. 2000. The diversity and abundance of North American butterflies vary with habitat disturbance and geography. Journal of Biogeography, 27:785-794.
  • [53] Koh, L. P. 2007. Impacts land use change on South-east Asian forest butterflies : A review. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44 : 703-713.
  • [54] Kumar, P. and Murugesan, A. G. 2014. Species diversity and habitat association of butterflies around 30km radius of Kundankulam Nuclear Power Plant area of Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 6(8) :608-615.
  • [55] Kunte, K. 1997. Seasonal pattern in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in northern Western Ghats. Journal of Bioscience, 22(5): 593-603.
  • [56] Kunte K. 2000. Butterflies of Peninsular India. Hyderabad : Universities Press (India) Limited, pp. 254.
  • [57] Landau, D., Prowell, D. and Carlton, C. E. 1999. Intensive versus long-term sampling to access lepidopteran diversity in a mixed mesophytic forest. Journal of Conservation Biology and Biodiversity, 92: 435-441.
  • [58] Larsen, T. B. 2004, Butterflies of Bangladesh : An annotated checklist: IUCN: The World Conservation Union, Bangladesh Country Office, 158 pp.
  • [59] Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. London. Chapman and Hall., 192 pp.
  • [60] Magurran, A. E. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Publ. Blackwell Publishing Company, 256 pp.
  • [61] Marchiori, M. O. and Romanowski, H. P. 2006. Species composition and diet variation of a butterfly taxocene (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae in a resting forest at Itapua State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23(2): 443-454.
  • [62] Margules, C. R. and Pressey, R. L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 405: 243-253.
  • [63] Mathew, G. and. Anto, M. 2007. In situ conservation of butterflies through establishment of butterfly gardens: A case study at Peechi, Kerala, India. Current Science, 93(3): 337-347.
  • [64] Mennechez, G., Schtickzelle, N. and Baguette, M. 2003. Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary between a continuous and a highly fragmented butterfly : comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal landscape. Landscape Ecology, 18: 279-291.
  • [65] Miller, J. R., Wiens, J. A., Hobbs, N. T., Thompson, N. and Theobald, D. M. 2003. Effects of human settlement on bird communities in lowland riparian areas of Colorado (USA). Ecological Application, 13:1041–1059.
  • [66] Mukherjee, M. 1981. Plant Groups. New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd., 727-1117 pp.
  • [67] Mukherjee, S., Banerjee, S., Saha, G. K., Basu, P. and Aditya, G. 2015. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation Management. Journal of Biodiversity Asia-Pacific, 8: 210-221.
  • [68] Nagelkerken, I. Blaber, S. J., Boullion, M., Green, P., Haywood, M., Kirton, L. G., Meyeneck, J. O., Pawlik, J., Penrose, H. M., Sasekumar, A. and Somerfield, P. J. 2008. The habitat functions of mangrove for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89: 155-185.
  • [69] Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Wildlife Habitat Council (WHC). 2000. Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera), Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet.
  • [70] New, T. R. 1991. Butterfly conservation. Melbourne. Oxford University Press, pp. 224.
  • [71] Nimbalkar, R. K., Chandekar, S. K. and Khunte, S. P. 2011. Butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 3: 1601-1609.
  • [72] Padhye, A. D., Dahanukar, N., Paingankar, M., Deshpande, M. and Deshpande, D. 2006. Season and Landscape wise distribution of butterflies in Tamhini, Northern, Western Ghats, India. Zoo’s Print Journal, 21(3): 2175-2181.
  • [73] Patel, A. P. and Pandya, N. R. 2014. Assessment of temporal & spatial variation in species richness and diversity of butterfly host plants. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 4(3): 235-245.
  • [74] Pielou, E. C. 1969. An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology, Vol. 286, Publ. John Wiley, New York, 1-286 pp.
  • [75] Pollard, E. 1977. A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation, 12: 115-134.
  • [76] Pollard, E. and Yates, T. J. 1993. Monitoring butterflies for ecology and conservation. Publ. Chapman and Hall, London, 292 pp.
  • [77] Prasad, K. K., Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. and Rao, G. R. K. A. 2012. Contribution to the butterfly fauna of Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India (Lepidoptera). Mun. Ent. Zool., 7(2): 1178-1184.
  • [78] Pyle, R. M. 1984. Handbook for butterfly watchers, Boston:Houghton-Mifflin, 280 pp.
  • [79] Ramesh, T., Hussain, K. J., Selvanayagam, M., Satpathy, K. K. and Prasad, M. V. R. 2010. Patterns of diversity, abundance and habitat association of butterflies communities in heterogeneous landscapes of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) Campus at Kalpakkam, South India. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 75-85.
  • [80] Raychaudhuri, D. and Saha, S. (eds.). 2014. Atlas of Insects and Spiders of Buxa Tiger Reserve. Publ. West Bengal Biodiversity Board & Nature Books India, Kolkata, 357 pp.
  • [81] Rickets, T. H., Daily, G. C. and Fay, J. P. 200l. Countryside biogeography of moths in a fragmented landscape: Biodiversity in native and agricultural habitats. Conservation Biology, 15: 378-388.
  • [82] Roy, U. S., Mukherjee, M., and Mukhopadhyay, S. K. 2012. Butterfly diversity and abundance with reference to habitat heterogeneity in and around Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India. Our Nature,10: 53-60.
  • [83] Rosin, Z. M., Myczko, L., Piotr, S., Lenda, M., Moron, D., Sparks, T. H. and Tryjanowski, P. 2012. Butterfly responses to environmental factors in fragmented calcareous grassland. Journal of Insect Conservation, 16, 321-329.
  • [84] Saha, S. 2007-2008. Mudpuddling of Butterflies. Dyuti, Lady Brabourne College Annual Magazine : 126 & inner back cover page
  • [85] Saikia, M. K. 2011. Impact of tropical forest degradation on nymphalid butterflies: A case study in Chandubi tropical forest, Assam, India. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 3: 650-669.
  • [86] Schmidt, B. C. and Roland, J. 2006. Moth diversity in a fragmented habitat: Importance of functional groups and landscape scale in the boreal forest. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99 (6), 1110-1120.
  • [87] Sengupta, P., Banerjee, K. K. and Ghorai, N. 2014. Seasonal diversity of butterflies and their larval food plants in the surroundings of upper Neora Valley National Park, a sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest in the Eastern Himalayan landscape, West Bengal, India, J. of Threatened Taxa, 6(1): 5327-5342.
  • [88] Shannon, C. E., and Weiner, W. 1948. A mathematical theory of communication. Publ. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 117 pp.
  • [89] Shihan, T. R. 2014. Checklist of butterflies of Chuadanga District, Bangladesh. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2(5): 218-224.
  • [90] Shihan, T. R. and Mohammed, A. H. P.2014. Butterflies of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Habiganj, Bangladesh. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies,. 1 (6): 96-100.
  • [91] Shihan, T. R. and Kabir, A. 2015. Butterfly diversity in relation to Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and H. E. Robins as a nectar plant from two selected regions of Bangladesh. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3(3): 258-264.
  • [92] Shreeve, T. G. 1992. Adult behaviour. In : The ecology of butterflies in Britain (Ed. R.L.H. Dennis). Publ. Oxford University Press. Oxford (UK) : 22-45.
  • [93] Simpson, E .H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163: 688.
  • [94] Smallidge, P. J. and Leopold, D. J. 1997. Vegetation management for the maintenance and conservation of butterfly habitats in temperate human-dominated landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 38: 259-280.
  • [95] Sørensen, T. 1948: A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species and its application to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons. Biologiske Skrifter Danske Videnskabemes Selskab., 5(4): 1-34.
  • [96] Strien, V. V., Duuren, A. J., Foppen, R. P. B. and Soldaat, L. L. 2009. A Typology of indicators of biodiversity change as a tool to make better indicators. Ecological Indicators, 9:1041-1048.
  • [97] Summerville, K. S. and Crist, T. O. 2001. Effects of experimental habitat fragmentation on patch use by butterflies and skippers (Lepidoptera). Ecology, 82: 1360-1370.
  • [98] Thakur, M.S. and Mattu, V. K. 2010. The role of Butterfly as flower visitors and pollinators in Shiwalik hills of western Himalayas. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Science, 4: 822-825.
  • [99] Thomas, C. D., Bodsworth, E. J., Wilson, R. J., Simmons, A. D., Davies, Z. G., Musche, M. and Conradt, L. 2001. Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins. Nature, 411: 577-581.
  • [100] Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., and Green, R. E. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427 : 145-148.
  • [101] Thomas, J. A, Simcox, D. J., Wardlaw, J. C., Elmes, W. G., Hochberg, M. E, and Clark, R. T. 1998. Effects of latitude, altitude and climate on the habitat and conservation of the endangered butterfly Maculinea arion and its Myrmica ant host. Journal of Insect Conservation., 2: 39-46.
  • [102] Thomas J. A. 2005. Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insectsUsing butterflies and other indicator groups. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (360): 339-357.
  • [103] Tiple, A. D. 2012. Butterfly species diversity, relative abundance and status in tropical forest research institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Journal of threatened Taxa, 4(7): 2713-2717.
  • [104] Tiple, A. D., Deshmukh, V. P. and Dennis, R. L. H. 2006. Factors influencing nectar plant resource visits by butterflies on a university campus: implications for conservation. Nota Lepidopteralogica, 28: 213-224.
  • [105] Tiple, A. D. and Khurad, A. M. 2009. Butterfly species diversity, habitats and seasonal distribution in and around Nagpur city, Central India. World Journal of Zoology, 4(3): 153-162.
  • [106] Van Swaay, V. C. A. M., Harpke, A., Van Strien, A., Fontaine, B., Stefanescu, C., Roy, D., Maes, D., Kühn, E., Õunap, E., Regan, E. C., Švitra, G., Heliölä, J., Settele, J., Musche, M., Warren, M. S., Plattner, M., Kuussaari, M., Cornish, N., Schweiger, O., Feldmann, R., Julliard, R., Verovnik, R., Roth, T. Brereton, T. and Devictor, V., 2010. The impact of climate change on butterfly communities 1990-2009, Report VS2010.025, Butterfly Conservation Europe & De Vlinderstichting, Wageningen.
  • [107] Varshney, R.K. 1990. Revised nomenclature for taxa in Wynther-Blyth’s Book on the butterflies of Indian Region-III. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 87: 53-61.
  • [108] Varshney ,R. K. and Smetacek, P. (Eds.) 2015. A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. Butterfly Research Center, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing, New Delhi, ii +261pp., 8 pl.
  • [109] Watt, W. B., Boggs, C. L. 2003. Synthesis : Butterflies as model systems in ecology and evolution present and future. In : Butterflies : ecology and evolution taking flight (Eds.: Boggs C.L., Watt W.B., Ehrlich P.R. Chicago Press, The University of Chicago : 603-613.
  • [110] Wilson, E. O. 1997. Introduction. In : Biodiversity II. [Eds. : Reaka-Kudla M.L., Wilson D.E., Wilson E.O., Washington, D.C. Henry Press, 1-3.
  • [111] Wynter-Blyth, M. A. 1957. Butterflies of the Indian region. Publ. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 523 pp.
  • [112] Yamamoto, N., Yokoyama, J. and Kawata, M. 2007. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(25): 10524-10529.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.