Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2018 | 101 | 120-131
Article title

Overdiagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

Title variants
Languages of publication
Overdiagnosis of thyroid cancers contributes to increased incidence of thyroid cancers worldwide, which is already a serious public health problem. A great number of medical tests, helping to detect thyroid cancer, may result in an epidemic of diagnosis. A dramatic increase in the number of detected cases of thyroid cancer may be associated with a great number of neck ultrasounds, fine- needle aspirations and incidental findings during examination. Unfortunately, in response to overdiagnosis, more and more surgeries are being performed. It is important to differentiate stationary cancers from potentially aggressive diseases. Detection of cancer contributes to saving lives. However, in some instances it can be harmful, particularly if the disease is overdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to give a balanced view of thyroid cancer epidemic and controversies arising out of overdiagnosis.
Physical description
  • Medical University in Lodz, Department of Endocrinological, General and Oncological Surgery, Lodz, Poland
  • [1] GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388, 10053 (2016) 1545–1602.
  • [2] Davies L., Welch H.G.,Current thyroid cancer trends in the United States. JAMA Otolaryngology. Head & Neck Surgery 140, 4 (2014) 317–322.
  • [3] Chen W., Zheng R., Baade P.D. et al.Cancer statistics in China. Cancer Journal for Clinicians 66, 2 (2016) 115–132.
  • [4] Dal Maso L., LiseM., Zambon P. et al. Incidence of thyroid cancer in Italy, 1991-2005: time trends and age-period-cohort effects. Annals of Oncology 22, 4 (2011) 957–963.
  • [5] Louise Davies, H. Gilbert Welch. Current Thyroid Cancer Trends in the United States. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 140 (4) (2014) 317-322.
  • [6] Vaccarella S., Franceschi S., Bray F., Wild CP., Plummer M., Dal Maso L.Worldwide Thyroid- Cancer Epidemic. The Increasing Impact of Overdiagnosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 375 (70) (2016) 614-617.
  • [7] Harach HR, Franssila KO, Wasenius VM. Occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a “normal” finding in Finland: a systematic autopsy study. Cancer 56(3) (1985) 531-538.
  • [8] Martinez-Tello FJ, Martinez-Cabruja R, Fernandez-Martin J, Lasso-Oria C, Ballestin-Carcavilla C. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid: a systematic autopsy study from Spain of two series performed with two different methods. Cancer 71 (12) (1993) 4022-4029.
  • [9] Solares CA, Penalonzo MA, Xu M, Orellana E. Occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in postmortem species: prevalence at autopsy. American Journal of Otolaryngoly 26 (2) (2005) 87-90.
  • [10] Montanaro F., Pury P., Bordoni A., Lutz JM, Swiss Cancer Registries Network. Unexpected additional increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among a recent birth cohort in Switzerland. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 15 (2) (2016) 178-186.
  • [11] Jegerlehner S., Bulliard J-L., Aujesky D., Rodondi N., Germann S., Konzelmann I., Chiolero A., NICER Working Group. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancer: A population-based temporal trend study. PLoS One 12, 6 (2017) e0179387.
  • [12] Ferlay J., Soerjomataram I., Dikshit R., Eser S., Mathers C., Rebelo M., Parkin DM., Forman D, Bray F. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International Joural of Cancer 1(5), 136 (2015) 359-386.
  • [13] Mortensen, J, Woolner, L, Bennett W. Gross and microscopic findings in clinically normal thyroid glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 15, 111 (1955) 1270.
  • [14] Silverberg, S, Vidone R. Carcinoma of the thyroid in surgical and post-mortem material. Analysis of 300 cases at autopsy and literature review. Annals of Surgery 164 (1966) 291.
  • [15] Yihao Liu, Lei Su, Haipeng Xiao. Review of Factors Related to the Thyroid Cancer Epidemic. International Journal of Endocrinology (2017) 1-9.
  • [16] Lam, King- yin A. Pathology of Endocine Tumors Update: WHO New Classification 2017. AJSP 22 (2017) 209-217.
  • [17] Lloyd RV, Osamura RY, Kloppel G., et all. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and genetics of Tumors of Endocine Organs. IARC 4 (2017).
  • [18] Wu, P-C, Leslie, P, McLaren, K, Toft. Diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. A wolf in sheep's clothing. Clinical Endocrinology 31 (1989) 535.
  • [19] Grunwald F., Biersack H.J., Thyroid cancer. Berlin: Springer. Numbers from National Cancer Database in the US (2016), 10.
  • [20] Yassa L., Cibas ES, Benson CB, et al., Long- term assessment of a multidisciplinary approach to thyroid nodule diagnostic evaluation. Cancer 111 (2007) 508-516.
  • [21] B.Gharib H., Melton LJ III, et al., Fine- needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: impact on thyroid practice and cost of care. American Journal of Medicine 73 (1982) 381-384.
  • [22] Pusztaszeri M., Rossi E.D., Auger M., Baloch Z., Bishop J., Bongiovanni M., Chandra A., Cochand-Priollet B., Fadda G., Hirokawa M., Hong S.W., Kakudo K., Krane J.F., Nayar R.,Parangi S., Schmitt F., Faquin W.C., The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology: Proposed Modifications and Updates for the Second Edition form an International Panel. Acta Cytologica 60 (2016) 399-405.
  • [23] E. S. Cibas and Syed Z. Ali, The 2017 Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Thyroid 27, 11 (2017) 1341-1346.
  • [24] E. S. Cibas and Syed Z. Ali , The 2017 Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Thyroid and Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology 6 (2017) 217-222.
  • [25] Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty GM, Mandel SJ, Nikiforov YE, Pacini F, Randolph GW, Sawka AM, Schlumberger M, Schuff KG, Sherman SI, Sosa JA, Steward DL, Tuttle RM, Wartofsky L., American Thyroid Association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: the American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid 26 (2015, 2016) 1–133.
  • [26] Nikiforov YE, Seethala RR, Tallini G, Baloch ZW, Basolo F, Thompson LD, Barletta JA, Wenig BM, Al Ghuzlan A, Kakudo K, Giordano TJ, Alves VA, Khanafshar E, Asa SL, El-Naggar AK, Gooding WE, Hodak SP, Lloyd RV, Maytal. Thyroid Bethesda System. Thyroid 27 (2017) 1341-1346.
  • [27] G, Mete O, Nikiforova MN, Nose V, Papotti M, Poller DN, Sadow PM, Tischler AS, Tuttle RM, Wall KB, LiVolsi VA, Randolph GW, Ghossein RA.Nomenclature revision for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paradigm shift to reduce overtreatment of indolent tumors. JAMA Oncology 2 (2016) 1023–1029.
  • [28] Kang- Lung Lee Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ging- Shing Won, Yi- Hong Chou, Hong- Jen Chiou, Hsin-Kai Wang, Yi- Chen Lai, Yung- Hui Lin, Jane Wang. The use of fine needle aspiration and trends in incidence of thyroid cancer in Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Medical Association 81, 2 (2018) 164-169.
  • [29] Nikiforov Y.E., Seethala R.R., Tallini G. et al. Nomenclature revision for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paradigm shift to reduce overtreatment of indolent tumors. JAMA Oncology 2, 8 (2016) 1023–1029.
  • [30] Sprague B.L, Andersen S.W., Trentham-Dietz A. Thyroid cancer incidence and socioeconomic indicators of health care access. Cancer Causes & Control 19, 6 (2008) 585–593.
  • [31] Morris LGT, Sikora AG, Tosteson TD, Davies L. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer: the influence of access to care. Thyroid 23(7) (2013) 885-891.
  • [32] Sun G.H, DeMonner S., Davis M. M. Epidemiological and economic trends in inpatient and outpatient thyroidectomy in the United States, 1996-2006. Thyroid 23, 6 (2013) 727–733.
  • [33] Ergin A. B., Saralaya S., Olansky L. Incidental papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors among patients with Graves’ disease and euthyroid goiter,Cleveland clinic experience. American Journal of Otolaryngolog 35, 6 (2014) 784–790.
  • [34] Fagin JA, Wells SA. Biologic and Clinical Perspectives on Thyroid Cancer. N Engl J Med. 375 (2016) 1054–67.
  • [35] Sosa LA, Hanna LW, Robinson KA, Lanman R. Increases in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirations, operations and diagnoses of thyroid cancer in the United States. Surgery 154, 6 (2013) 1420–1426.
  • [36] Loyo M, Tufano RP, Gourin CG. National trends in thyroid surgery and the effect of volume on short-term outcomes. Laryngoscope 123, 8, (2013) 2056–2063.
  • [37] Van den Bruel A, Francart J, Dubois C, Adam M, Vlayen J, De Schutter H, Stordeur S, Decallonne B. Regional variation in thyroid cancer incidence in Belgium is associated with variation in thyroid imaging and thyroid disease management. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 98, 10 (2013) 4063–4071.
  • [38] Robin T. Vollmer, MD. Revisiting Overdiagnosis and Fatality in Thyroid Cancer. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 141, 1 (2014) 128–132.
  • [39] Chan JKC. Strict criteria should be applied in the diagnosis of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 117 (2002) 16-18.
  • [40] Piana S, Frasoldati A, Di Felice E, Gardini G, Tallini G, Rosai J. Encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas do not play a significant role in the fatality rates from thyroid carcinoma. American Journalm of Surgical Pathology 34, 6, (2010) 868-872.
  • [41] Vivero M, Kraft S, Barletta JA. Risk stratification of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 23, 3 (2013) 273-279.
  • [42] Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cell 159 (2014). 676-690.
  • [43] Shen X., Liu R., Xing M. A six- genetic prognostic model for papillary thyroid cancer. Endocrine - Related Cancer 24 (2017) 41-52.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.