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2009 | 9 | 4 | 231-239
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Modele doświadczalne stwardnienia rozsianego

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EN
Experimental models of multiple sclerosis
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Abstracts
EN
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Aetiology of SM is still unknown. Two pathological processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration are present from the beginning of MS. Autoreactive myelin-specific T cells can mediate the inflammatory response. Final stage of the development of MS is demyelination and axonal damage, which leads to the appearance of neurological symptoms. Several experimental models of MS were developed to get information about the mechanisms of the disease development. Those models include knockout mice (known as myelin mutants), chemically induced inflammation in the CNS, viral and autoimmune models. Knockout animals with blocked gene for myelin basic protein (MBP), mice Rumpshaker and Jimpy without genes for proteolipid protein (PLP), and mice with blocked gene for myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) have been used to study the mechanisms of demyelination. The use of various toxins such as ethidium bromide or cuprizone also allows the study of the mechanisms of de-/remyelinization in the CNS. Viral models of MS can be induced by Semliki Forest virus and Theiler’s virus. The well-known and widely used experimental model of MS is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). None of the mentioned above models perfectly initiate development and course of this disease. However, thanks to them the pathological mechanisms leading to development of MS can be studied.
PL
Stwardnienie rozsiane (łac. sclerosis multiplex, SM) jest przewlekłą chorobą ośrodkowego układu nerwowego (OUN) o podłożu autoimmunologicznym. Etiologia SM wciąż nie jest poznana. Od początku choroby zachodzą w OUN dwa procesy patologiczne: zapalenie i neurodegeneracja. W reakcji zapalnej pośredniczą autoreaktywne mielinowoswoiste limfocyty T. Końcowym etapem rozwoju SM jest demielinizacja i zniszczenie aksonów, co doprowadza do zaburzeń neurologicznych. Aby zdobyć informacje o mechanizmach rozwoju SM, często wykorzystuje się różne modele doświadczalne tej choroby. Wśród tych modeli należy wymienić myszy knockout (tzw. mutanty mielinowe), chemicznie indukowane w OUN zmiany zapalne i wirusowe oraz modele autoimmunizacyjne. Do zwierząt knockout, umożliwiających poznawanie mechanizmów demielinizacji, zaliczamy m.in. myszy Shiverer pozbawione genów dla białka zasadowego mieliny (MBP), myszy Rumpshaker i Jimpy bez genów dla lipofiliny (PLP) oraz myszy bez glikoproteiny związanej z mieliną (MAG). Użycie różnych toksyn, takich jak kuprizon czy bromek etydyny, również umożliwia badanie mechanizmów powstawania de-/remielinizacji w OUN. Do wirusowych modeli SM zaliczamy modele wywołane wirusem Semliki Forest i wirusem Theilera. Najbardziej znanym i szeroko używanym doświadczalnym modelem zwierzęcym SM jest doświadczalne autoimmunizacyjne zapalenie mózgu i rdzenia kręgowego (EAE). Żaden z wymienionych powyżej modeli nie naśladuje wiernie powstawania i przebiegu tej choroby. Mimo to możemy dzięki nim poznawać mechanizmy regulacji odpowiedzi immunologicznej, które w przyszłości mogą być podstawą do opracowania nowych, skutecznych metod farmakologicznego leczenia SM i innych podobnych chorób.
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Year
Volume
9
Issue
4
Pages
231-239
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Contributors
  • Oddział Kliniczny Propedeutyki Neurologicznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
  • Oddział Kliniczny Propedeutyki Neurologicznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
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