Digit Ratio in the Groups of Women and Men Practising and Non-practising Sports and Its Relations to the Somatic Features and Motoric Fitness
Languages of publication
The aim of the paper was to evaluate the digit ratio between groups of sporting and non-sporting women and men, and attempt to determine a value typical for athletes of each gender. Additional-ly, the aim was to evaluate relations of the digit ratio with both the somatic structure and motor fitness, which could then be used to improve on sports selection criteria. The research material comprised 22 anthropometric measurements together with results of four motor fitness tests of students active in various sports disciplines. The control group comprised students who had never practiced sport. The sporting students showed significantly lower digit ratios compared to the control group of non-sporting students. Correlations between the digit ratio and features of the body structure were low. Both sexes recorded significant nega-tive correlations between the digit ratio and handgrip strength, as well as with the long jump length. Those with a lower value of the digit ratio had better predispositions to practicing sports.
- Austin, E.J., Manning, J.T., McInroy, K., Mathews, E. (2002). A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio. Personality and Individual Differences, 33 (7), 1115–1124.
- Bailey, A.A., Hurd, P.L. (2005). Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biological Psychology, 68 (3), 215–222.
- Bennett, M., Manning, J.T., Cook, C.J., Kilduff, L.P. (2010). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in elite rugby players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28 (13), 1415–1421.
- Brown, W.M., Finn, C.J., Cooke, B.M., Breedlove, S.M. (2002a). Differences in finger length ratios between self-identified “butch” and “femme” lesbians. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 123–127.
- Danborno, B., Adebisi, S.S., Adelaiye, A.B., Ojo, S.A. (2008). Sexual Dimorphism and Relationship between Chest, Hip and Waist Circumference with 2D, 4D and 2D:4D in Nigerians. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, 1 (2), 1–5.
- Fink, B., Neave, N., Manning, J.T. (2003). Second to fourth digit ratio, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist to chest ratio: their relationships in heterosexual men and women. Annals of Human Biology, 30, 728–738.
- Fink, B., Thanzami, V., Seydel, H., Manning, J.T. (2006). Digit ratio and hand-grip strength in German and Mizos men: cross-cultural evidence for an organizing effect of prenatal testosterone on strength. American Journal of Human Biology, 18 (6), 776–782.
- Frick, N.A., Hull, M.J., Manning, J.T., Tomkinson, G.R. (2016). Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and basketball performance in Australian men. American Journal of Human Biology, 29 (3), 1–6.
- Garn, S.M., Burdi, A.R., Babler, W.J., Stinson, S. (1975). Early prenatal attainment of adult metacarpal‐phalangeal rankings and proportions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 43 (3), 327–332.
- Giffin, N.A., Kennedy, R.M., Jones, M.E., Barber, C.A. (2012). Varsity athletes have lower 2D:4D ratios than other university students. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (2), 135–138.
- Hone, L.S., McCullough, M.E. (2012). 2D:4D ratios predict hand grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in women). Evolution and Human Behavior, 33 (6), 780–789.
- Hönekopp, J., Bartholdt, L., Beier, L., Liebert, A. (2007). Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: New data and a meta-analytic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32 (4), 313–321.
- Hönekopp, J., Manning, J.T., Müller, C. (2006). Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and physical fitness in males and females: Evidence for effects of prenatal androgens on sexually selected traits. Hormones and Behavior, 49 (4), 545–549.
- Hönekopp, J., Schuster, M. (2010). A meta-analysis on 2D:4D and athletic prowess: Substantial relationships but neither hand outpredicts the other. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 4–10.
- Hsu, C.C., Su, B., Kan, N.W., Lai, S.L., Fong, T.H., Chi, C.P., Hsu, M.C. (2015). Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29 (3), 822–825.
- Ingham, S., Whyte, G., Jones, K., Nevill, A. (2002). Determinants of 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 (3), 243–246.
- Kalichman, L., Batsevich, V., Kobyliansky, E. (2017). Finger length ratio and body composition in Chuvashians. Collegium Antropologicum, 41 (1), 73–79.
- Kociuba, M., Kozieł, S., Chakraborty, R., Ignasiak, Z. (2017). Sports preference and digit ratio (2d:4d) among female students in Wrocław, Poland. Journal of Biosocial Science, 49 (5), 623–633.
- Kociuba, M., Kozieł, S., Chakraborty, R. (2016). Sex differences in digit ratio (2D: 4D) among military and civil cohorts at a military academy in Wrocław, Poland. Journal of Biosocial Science, 48 (5), 658–671.
- Kozieł, S., Kociuba, M., Chakraborty, R., Ignasiak, Z. (2017). Physical fitness and digit ratio in male students from Wroclaw. Collegium Antropologicum, 41 (1), 25–30.
- Krakowiak, H., Čabrić, M., Sokołowska, E. (2013). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and body composition in athletes. Medical and Biological Sciences, 27 (4), 33–37.
- Longman, D., Stock, J.T., Wells, J.C. (2011). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and rowing ergometer performance in males and females. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144 (3), 337–41.
- Lu, H., Shen, D., Wang, L., Niu, S., Bai, C., Ma, Z., Huo, Z. (2017). Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and handgrip strength are correlated in women (but not in men) in Hui ethnicity. Early Human Development, 109, 21–25.
- Lutchmaya, S., Baron, Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., Knickmeyer, R., Manning, J.T. (2004). 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development, 77, 23–28.
- Manning, J.T., Barley, L., Walton, J., Lewis-Jones, D.I., Trivers, R.L., Singh, D., Thornhill, R., Rohde, P, Bereczkei, T., Henzi, P., Soler, M., Szwed, A. (2000). The 2nd: 4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences, and reproductive success: evidence for sexually antagonistic genes? Evolution and Human Behavior, 21 (3), 163–183.
- Manning, J.T. (2002a) Digit Ratio: A Pointer to Fertility, Behaviour, and Health. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
- Manning, J.T., Scutt, D., Wilson, J., Lewis-Jones, D.I. (1998). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Human Reproduction, 13 (11), 3000–3004.
- Manning, J.T. (2002b). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and performance in skiing. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42 (4), 446–450.
- Manning, M., Kilduff, L., Cook, C., Crewther, C., Fink, B. (2014). Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 5 (9), 1–5.
- Manning, T.J., Hill, M.R. (2009). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sprinting speed in boys. American Journal of Human Biology, 21, 210–213.
- McFadden, D., Westhafer, J.G., Pasanen, E.G., Carlson, C.L., Tucker, D.M. (2005) Physiological evidence of hypermasculinization in boys with the inattentive type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Neuroscience Research, 5, 233–245.
- Moffit, D.M., Swanik, C.B. (2011). The association between athleticism, prenatal testosterone, and finger length. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25 (4), 1085–1088.
- Mularczyk, M., Ziętek-Czeszak, A., Ziętek, Z. (2014). Ocena dymorfizmu płciowego wskaźnika długości palców (2D:4D). Pomeranian Journal of Life Sciences, 60 (1), 47–51.
- Muller, D.C., Baglietto, L., Manning, J.T, McLean, C., Hopper, J.L., English, D.R., Severi, G. (2012). Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), breast cancer risk factors, and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Cancer, 107 (9), 1631–1636.
- Neave, N., Laing, S., Fink, B., Manning, J.T. (2003). Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone, and perceived male dominance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. Biological Sciences, 270 (1529), 2167–2172.
- Okten, A., Kalyoncu, M., Yaris, N. (2002). The ratio of second- and fourth-digit lengths and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Early Human Development, 70, 47–54.
- Perciavalle, V., Di Corrado, D., Petralia, M.C., Gurrisi, L., Massimino, S., Coco, M. (2013). The second-to-fourth digit ratio correlates with aggressive behavior in professional soccer players. Molecular Medicine Reports, 7 (6), 1733–1738.
- Tamiya, R., Lee, S.Y, Ohtake, F. (2012). Second to fourth digit ratio and the sporting success of sumo wrestlers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 130–136.
- Zatsiorsky, V.M., Kraemer, W.J. (2006). Science and practice of strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Zhao, D., Li, B., Yu, K., Zheng, L. (2012). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in subjects of Han ethnicity: impact of sex and age. American journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2), 266–271.
Publication order reference