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2011 | 11 | 4 | 265-273
Article title

Patogeneza rozwoju blaszki miażdżycowej w tętnicach szyjnych

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Title variants
EN
Pathogenesis of development of atheromatous plaque in carotid arteries
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PL
Abstracts
EN
It is scientifically confirmed that atherosclerosis simultaneously develops in the whole arterial system. The mechanism and character of atherosclerotic plaque formation is similar in different regions of the vascular system. The essence of atherosclerosis pathogenesis appears to be an excessive inflammatory and fibroproliferative response to various forms of arterial wall injury. The development of unstable atheromatous plaques is closely related to the inflammatory process involving the arterial wall. Immunological factors seem to play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic plaques and their destabilization. Unstable plaque is characterized by higher blood supply, thinner and more fragile fibrous layer and higher number of inflammatory cells. Lipid core of plaque is bigger and more rich in liquid cholesterol esters. Pathological and growing vessels are the main source of bleeding to plaque what leads to its rupture. Cytokines and growth factors have a strong impact on activation of atheromatous plaque. Finding of inflammatory markers of plaque destabilisation in blood serum may be an additional diagnostic tool useful for diagnosis and monitoring of stroke management. It should be stressed that a closer look at participation of the immune system in pathogenesis of artherosclerosis may contribute to a development of the new therapies of this pathology and its complications like ischaemic stroke.
PL
Badania naukowe pokazują, że zmiany miażdżycowe mogą rozwijać się jednocześnie w różnych naczyniach. Charakter i mechanizm powstawania tych zmian jest bardzo podobny. Miażdżyca to proces chorobowy, którego istotą jest nadmierna, zapalno-proliferacyjna odpowiedź na uszkodzenie ściany tętnicy. Proces zapalny toczący się w obrębie ściany naczynia wiąże się z rozwojem niestabilnych zmian miażdżycowych. Blaszka tego typu cechuje się bogatszym unaczynieniem, cieńszą, podatną na pęknięcia czapeczką włóknistą oraz zwiększoną liczbą komórek zapalnych. Rdzeń lipidowy blaszki staje się obszerny i bogaty w płynne estry cholesterolowe. Nieprawidłowe i rozrastające się naczynia są głównym źródłem wylewów do blaszki i jej obrzeża, co w efekcie prowadzi do jej pęknięcia. W procesie rozwoju blaszek miażdżycowych biorą udział różnorodne komórki układu immunologicznego, głównie monocyty, makrofagi, limfocyty T i B oraz komórki dendrytyczne. Ponadto udokumentowany został wpływ mediatorów zapalnych, a także czynników wzrostu na rozwój blaszek miażdżycowych. Znalezienie markerów zapalnego podłoża destabilizacji blaszek miażdżycowych w surowicy może stanowić istotne uzupełnienie badań diagnostycznych stosowanych w rozpoznawaniu i monitorowaniu leczenia udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu. Poznanie udziału komórek układu immunologicznego w rozwoju miażdżycy może pozwolić na dokładniejsze zrozumienie mechanizmu powstawania blaszek miażdżycowych oraz przyczynić się do wprowadzenia nowych metod leczenia miażdżycy i jej powikłań, w tym udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
11
Issue
4
Pages
265-273
Physical description
Contributors
  • Oddział Kliniczny Propedeutyki Neurologicznej z Pododdziałem Udarowym, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, magda-kacperska@o2.pl
  • Oddział Kliniczny Propedeutyki Neurologicznej z Pododdziałem Udarowym, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, aglabinski@gmail.com
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