The Differentiation of Visual Sensorimotor Processes in the Representatives of Various Sport Disciplines
Languages of publication
Sport activities usually require a high efficiency of visual information processing. Therefore, it seems justified to determine the efficiency of visual sensorimotor processes in sports requiring a variety of perception competencies. The aim of this study was to assess the differentiation of sensorimotor processes in terms of simple and choice reaction time, and visual stimulus discrimination in various athletes and untrained persons. The study involved 119 men, of which 95 were athletes: football players (n = 24), volleyball players (n = 22), boxers (n = 26), and rowers (n = 23). The efficiency of sensorimotor processes was evaluated with the Vienna Test System (Schuhfried, Austria). The evaluations included simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), and visual stimulus discrimination. Analysis of the results showed that volleyball and football players had shorter (p < 0.01) reaction times compared to non-athletes and representatives of the other sports. We found significant differences (p < 0.01) between athletes and non-athletes in visual stimulus discrimination. In addition, boxers showed fewer correct reactions than volleyball players, and shorter times of stimulus detection than in volleyball and soccer players.
- Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Szczecin, Poland
- University of Szczecin, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, Szczecin, Poland
- University of Szczecin, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, Szczecin, Poland
- Ando, S., Kida, N., Oda, S. (2001). Central and peripheral visual reaction time of soccer players and nonathletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92 (3), 786–794.
- Baylor, A.M., Spirduso, W.W. (1988). Systematic aerobik exercise and components of reaction time in older women. Journal of Gerontology and Psychological Sciences, 43, 121–126.
- Bianco, M., Ferri, M., Fabiano, C., Giorgiano, F., Tavella, S., Manili, U., Faina, M., Palmieri, V., Zeppilli, P. (2011). Baseline simple and complex reaction times in female compared to male boxers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51 (2), 292–298.
- Borysiuk, Z., Sadowski, J. (2007). Time and spatial aspects of movement anticipation. Biology of Sport, 3, 285–295.
- Cañal-Bruland, R. (2009). Visual cueing in sport-specific decision making International. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7 (4), 450–464.
- Chappell, M.H., Ulug, A.M., Zhang, L., Heitger, M.H., Jordan, B.D., Zimmerman, R.D., Watts, R. (2006). Distribution of microstructural damage in the brains of professional boxers: A diffusion MRI study. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24 (3), 537–542.
- Cojocarlu, A., Abalasel, B. (2014). Does the reaction time to visual stimuli contribute to performance in judo? Archives of Budo, 10, 73–78.
- Darby, D., Moriarity, J., Pietrzak, R., Kutcher, J., McAward, K., McCrory, P. (2014). Prediction of winning amateur boxers using pretournament reaction times. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 54 (3), 340–346.
- Di Russo, F., Taddei, F., Aprile, T., Spinelli, D. (2006). Neural correlates of fast stimulus discrimination and response selection in top level fencers. Neuroscience Letters, 408, 113–118.
- Enns, J.T., Richards, J. (1997). Visual attentional orienting in developing hockey players. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 64, 255–275.
- Erickson, G. (2007). Sports Vision: Vision Care for the Enhancement of Sports Performance. St. Louis: Butterworth-Heinemann.
- Fontani, G., Lodi, L., Felici, A., Migliorini, S., Corradeschi, F. (2006). Attention in athletes of high and low experience engaged in defferent open skill sports. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102 (3), 791–805.
- Foroghipour, H., Monfared, M.O., Pirmohammadi, M., Saboonchi, R. (2013). Comparison of Simple and Choice Reaction Time in Tennis and Volleyball Players. International Journal of Sport Studies, 3 (1), 74–79.
- Galetta, K.M., Barrett, J., Allen, M., Madda, F., Delicata, D., Tennant, A.T., Branas, C.C., Maguire, M.G., Messner, L.V., Devick, S., Galetta, S.L., Balcer, L.J. (2011). The King-Devick test as a determinant of head trauma and concussion in boxers and MMA figters. Neurology, 76 (17), 1456–1462.
- Giglia, G., Brighina, F., Zangla, D., Bianco, A., Chiavetta, E., Palma, A., Fierro, B. (2011). Visuospatial attention lateralization in volleyball players and in rowers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112 (3), 915–925.
- Hagemann, N., Schorer, J., Cañal-Bruland, R., Lotz, S., Strauss, B. (2010). Visual perception in fencing: do the eye movements of fencers represent their information pickup? Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 72 (8), 2204–2214.
- Hijazi, M. (2013). Attention, Visual Perception and their Relationship to Sport Performance in fencing. Journal of Human Kinetics, 39, 195–201.
- Jordan, B.D., Relkin, N.R., Ravdin, L.D., Jacobs, A.R., Bennett, A., Gandy, S. (1997). Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278 (2), 136–140.
- Khani, M., Farrokhi, A., Kheslat, S.D.N., Sadri, K., Farrar, A. (2012). Chronic attention impairments in amateur boxing: Effect of repeated blows to the head. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 6 (1), 23–28.
- Kida, N., Oda, S., Matsumura, M. (2005). Intensive baseball practice improves the Go/NoGo reaction time, but not the simple reaction time. Cognitive Brain Research, 22 (2), 257–264.
- Kioumourtzoglou, E., Kourtessis, T., Michalopoulou, M., Derri, V. (1998). Differences in several perceptual abilities between experts and novices in basketball, volleyball and water-polo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86 (3), 899–912.
- Koerte, I.K., Ertl-Wagner, B., Reiser, M., Zafonte, R., Shenton, M.E. (2012). White matter integrity in the brains of professional soccer players without a symptomatic concussion. Journal of the American Medical Association, 308 (18), 1859–1861.
- Kokubu, M., Ando, S., Kida, N., Oda, S. (2006). Interference effects between saccadic and key press reaction times of volleyball players and nonathletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103 (3), 709–716.
- Lu, Z.L., Dosher, B.A. (1998). External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms. Vision Research, 38, 1183–1198.
- Lum, J., Enns, J.T., Pratt, J. (2002). Visual orienting in the college athletes: Explorations of athlete type and gender. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 156–167.
- Matser, E.J., Kessels, A.G., Lezak, M.D., Troost, J., Jordan, B.D. (2000). Acute traumatic brain injury in amateur boxing. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28 (1), 87–92.
- Matser, J.T., Kessels, A.G., Lezak, M.D., Troost, J. (2001). A dose-response relation of headers and concussions with cognitivie impairment in professional soccer players. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23 (6), 770–774.
- McAllister, T.W., Flashman, L.A., Maerlender, A., Greenwald, R.M., Beckwith, J.G., Tosteson, T.D., Crisco, J.J., Brolinson, P.G., Duma, S.M., Duhaime, A.C., Grove, M.R., Turco, J.H. (2012). Cognitive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes. Neurology, 78 (22), 1777–1784.
- McKee, A.C., Cantu, R.C., Nowinski, C.J., Hedley-Whyte, E.T., Gavett, B.E., Budson, A.E., Santini, V.E., Lee, H.S., Kubilus, C.A., Stern, R.A. (2009). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: Progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 68 (7), 709–735.
- Memmert, D., Simons, D.J., Grimme, T. (2009). The relationship between visual attentionand expertise in sports. Psychology of Sport Exercise, 10 (1), 146–151.
- Mero, A., Jaakkola, L., Komi, P.V. (1989). Neuromuscular, metabolit and hormonal profile sof young tennis players and untrained boys. Journal of Sport Sciences, 7 (2), 95.
- Mokha, R., Kaur, G., Sidhu, L.S. (1992). Effect of training on the reaction time of Indian female hockey players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 32 (4), 428–431.
- Nougier, V., Ripoll, H., Stein, J.F. (1989). Orienting of attention with highly skilled athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 20, 205–223.
- Overney, L.S., Blanke, O., Herzog, M.H. (2008). Enhanced temporal but not attentional processing in expert tennis players. PLoS ONE, 3 (6), 1–9.
- Pesce, C., Tessitore, A., Casella, R., Pirritano, M., Capranica, L. (2007). Focusing of visual attention at rest and during physical exercise in soccer players. Journal of Sports Science, 25 (11), 1259–1270.
- Piras, A., Lobietti, R., Squatrito, S. (2014). Response Time, Visual Search Strategy and Anticipatory Skills in Volleyball Players. Journal of Ophthalmology. DOI: 10.1155/2014/189268.
- Sánchez-López, J., Fernández, T., Silva-Pereyra, J. (2013). Differences between Judo, Taekwondo and Kung-fu Athletes in Sustained Attention and Impulse Control. Psychology, 4 (7), 607–612.
- Soto-Rey, J., Pérez-Tejero, J., Rojo-González, J.J., Reina, R. (2014). Study of reaction time to visual stimuli in athletes with and without a hearing impairment. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119 (1), 123–132.
- Taliep, S.M., St Clair, G.A., Gray, J., Van der Merwe, L., Vaughan, C.L., Noakes, T.D., Kellaway, L.A., John, L.R. (2008). Event-related potentials, reaction time, and response selection of skilled and less-skilled cricket batsmen. Perception, 37, 96–105.
- Thomson, K., Watt, A., Liukkonen, J. (2008). Skill-related differences between athletes and nonathletes in speed discrimination. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 107, 893–900.
- Uehara, L.A., Button, C., Davids, K. (2008). The effects of focus of attention instructions on novices learning soccer chip. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, 63–77.
- Vansteenkiste, P., Vaeyens, R., Zeuwts, L., Philippaerts, R., Lenoir, M. (2014). Cue usage in volleyball: a time course comparison of elite, intermediate and novice female players. Biology of Sport, 31 (4), 295–302.
- Warden, D.L., Bleiberg, J., Cameron, K.L., Ecklund, J., Walter, J., Sparling, M.B., Reeves, D., Reynolds, K.Y., Arciero, R. (2001). Persistent prolongation of simple reaction time in sports concussion. Neurology, 57, 524–526.
- Williams, A.M., Davids, K., Williams, J.G. (1999). Visual perception and action in sport. London: Taylor & Francis.
- Wulf, G., McConnel, N., Gärtner, M., Schwarz, A. (2002). Enhancing the Learning of Sport Skills Through External-Focus Feedback. Journal of Motor Behavior, 34 (2), 171–182.
- Zazryn, T.R., Finch, C.F., McCrory, P. (2003). A 16 year study of injuries to professional boxers in the state of Victoria, Australia. Britain Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 321–324.
- Zhang, L., Heier, L.A., Zimmerman, R.D., Jordan, B., Ulug, A.M. (2006). Diffusion anisotropy changes in the brains of professional boxers. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 27 (9), 2000–2004.
- Zwierko, T., Osiński, W., Lubiński, W., Czepita, D., Florkiewicz, B. (2010). Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 23, 21–27.
- Zwierko, T., Florkiewicz, B., Fogtman, S., Kszak-Krzyżanowska, A. (2014). The ability to maintain attention during visuomotor task performance in handball players and non-athletes. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 7 (3), 99–106.
Publication order reference