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2016 | 16 | 66 | 237–251
Article title

Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

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PL
Diagnostyka obrazowa młodzieńczego idiopatycznego zapalenia stawów. Część II: Ultrasonografia i rezonans magnetyczny
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Abstracts
EN
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.
PL
Młodzieńcze idiopatyczne zapalenie stawów jest najczęstszą przewlekłą układową chorobą tkanki łącznej wieku rozwojowego o podłożu immunologicznym. Standardem w ocenie zapaleń stawów w tym schorzeniu są zdjęcia radiograficzne, które omówiono w pierwszej części tej publikacji. Badanie ultrasonograficzne i rezonans magnetyczny umożliwiają wczesne rozpoznanie choroby, która obejmuje tkanki miękkie: błonę maziową jam stawów, kaletek i pochewek, tkankę kostną i tłuszczową. W badaniu ultrasonograficznym ocenia się: jamy stawów, pochewki i kaletki – w celu uwidocznienia cech zapalenia błony maziowej, tkankę tłuszczową śródstawową i pozastawową – w celu uwidocznienia cech jej zapalenia, chrząstkę szklistą, chrzęstną nasadę u dzieci, tkankę kostną podchrzęstną – pod kątem obecności uszkodzeń, wreszcie więzadła, ścięgna oraz ich entezy – pod kątem obecności zmian zapalnych i uszkodzeń. Wskazania do rezonansu magnetycznego u dzieci z młodzieńczym idiopatycznym zapaleniem stawów obejmują: ocenę zmian zapalnych w jamach stawów obwodowych oraz pochewkach ścięgnistych i ścięgnach, zmian zapalnych w szpiku kostnym, poszukiwanie ognisk zapalnych w badaniu rezonansem magnetycznym całego ciała, szczególnie przy niejasnym obrazie klinicznym, ocenę kręgosłupa i rdzenia kręgowego w celu diagnostyki zmian zapalnych, w tym zapalenia błony maziowej, obrzęku szpiku, spondylodiscitis, ocenę ich aktywności, lokalizacji i zaawansowania (m.in. okolica szczytowo-obrotowa) oraz powikłań (m.in. stenoza kanału kręgowego, podwichnięcia szczytowo-obrotowe). W publikacji omówiono charakterystyczne zmiany chorobowe w badaniu ultrasonograficznym i rezonansie magnetycznym, a także poruszono zagadnienia dotyczące monitorowania choroby za pomocą tych dwóch metod oraz rozpoznawania choroby w stadium przedklinicznym i ustalania jej remisji.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
16
Issue
66
Pages
237–251
Physical description
Contributors
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland. Department of Medical Imaging, Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, sudolszopinska@gmail.com
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
author
  • Department of Pediatrics, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
author
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
References
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Document Type
review
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-db9816f8-ae49-4317-8c9f-5519f0d1c493
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