Spatial Variation of Air Quality in Mpape Area of Abuja, Nigeria
Languages of publication
The study assessed air quality along selected area of interest in Mpape Area of the FCT, Nigeria. Particularly, it examined air quality variation in the heavily built areas, industrial areas, and control sites areas in Mpape. The experimental research was employed and air quality variables such as NH3, NO2, SO2, H2S CO2 and PM10 and PM25 were quantitatively gathered in the field using standard methods and equipments such as Minivol Portable Air Sampler, A set of Crow Can Dictator Meter, and GPS. Traffic volume along selected land uses in the three locations was obtained through traffic count approach. Data obtained were analyzed using averages, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, cluster analysis and Factor analysis. Across the studied locations, high content of carbon monoxide (CO2) was recorded in Arab Quarry District followed by Millennium Avenue and with mean values of 1.76 ppm and 1.50ppm respectively, while in the lowest concentration of CO2 was recorded in the Control site with a mean value of 1.18ppm. The range of SO2 in the present study is above FEPA recommended level of 0.10ppm. The range is also within WHO’s 24hrs allowable limit of 20ppm, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) varied significantly among the different locations (F = 30.540, p<0.05). The concentration of ammonia (NH3) is ranged from 0.04 to 0.06ppm. The contents of atmospheric particulate matters (PM), PM2.5 and PM10 also varied among the selected locations. For PM2.5, it value ranged from 0.18 to 0.27μg/m3 which is slightly above the threshold of 0.25μg/m3 recommended by FEPA, mostly for ambient air quality in Angwan Gwari and Millennium Avenue areas. The range of PM2.5 is within WHO’s limit of 20μg/m3 for 24hrs mean concentration. Result of ANOVA showed that the concentration of PM2.5 varied significantly among the various locations (F = 10.758 p<0.05). Furthermore, for PM10, it value ranged from 0.16 to 0.26μg/m3 which is also slightly above the threshold of 0.25μg/m3 recommended by FEPA, mostly in Arab Quarry District and to some extent Angwan Gwari/ Millennium Avenue. These areas have increased concentrations of PM10. The range of PM10 reported in the present study is within WHO’s limit of 24hrs mean concentration of 50μg/m3. Also, result of ANOVA showed that the concentration of PM10 varied significantly among the various locations (F = 9.880 p<0.05). The result therefore means that Arab Quarry District and Angwan Gwari/ Millennium Avenue have high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations. Cluster analysis classifies the principal pollutants of Mpape into two homogenous groups (SO2 and PM, and NO2) and also identifies anthropogenic activities (principally the combustion of fuel) as the primary source of emission of these groups of gases or pollutants into the atmosphere. Factor Analysis identified anthropogenic activities as the main sources of pollution of PM, NO2, SO2, NO and CO2 in Mpape environs. From the result of this research, there should be regular monitoring of atmospheric pollutants around the area in order to prevent the potential health and atmospheric related impacts of such air toxics in the region; Government should assist in the development of these new technologies that will enhance engine efficiency and reduce fuel consumption through the funding of research.
-  Abad, J. R.S., Khosravi, H. and Alamdarlou, E. H. (2014). Assessment the effects of land use changes on soil physicochemical properties in Jafarabad of Golestan province, Iran. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. 3 (3): 296-300.
-  Abdullahi M. E., Okobia, E. L. and Hassan, S. M. (2012). Assessment of ambient atmospheric concentration of volatile organic compounds in Abuja-Nigeria. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 2 (3): 1637-1647.
-  Adelagun, R. O. A., Berezi, E. P. and Akintunde, O. A. (2012) Air pollution in a sawmill industry: the Okobaba (Ebute-Meta, Lagos) experience. J. Sustain. Dev. & Environ. Protection 2 (2): 29-36.
-  Adoki, A. (2012). Air quality survey of some locations in the Niger Delta Area. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 16 (1) 125-134.
-  Akpan, U.G. and Ndoke, P. N. (1999) Contribution of vehicular traffic emission to CO2 emission in Kaduna and Abuja. Minna: Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
-  Alo, B (2008). Contribution of road transportation to environmental degradation in Nigeria’s urban cities. Paper presented in Lamata Annual National Conference of Public Transportation in Nigeria.
-  Amin, A.T.M. (2009). Reducing emissions from private cars: Incentive measures for behavioural change. Prepared for economics and trade branch, Division of technology, Industry and economics, United Nations Environment Programme.
-  Atubi, A. O. (2015) Transport and the environment: towards reducing road traffic emissions in Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology 4(1), 58-78.
-  Balogun, V.S. and Orimoogunje,O.O.I. (2015). An Assessment of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 5, 209-218.
-  Bao, J., Yang, X., Zhao, Z., Wang, Z., Yu, C. and Li, X. (2015). The spatial-temporal characteristics of air pollution in China from 2001–2014. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12, 15875-15887.
-  Cannistraro, G., and Ponterio, L. (2009). Analysis of air quality in the outdoor environment of the city of Messina by an application of the pollution index method. International Journal of Civil and Environment Engineering, 1, 4.
-  Department of the Environment and Heritage (2005) Air quality fact sheet. Retrieved from: https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/publications/factsheet-sulfur-dioxide-so2
-  Ebong, G. A. and Mkpenie, V. N. (2016) Air quality monitoring in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta region of Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 4(2): 55-62.
-  EEA Technical report (2008) Annual European Community LRTAP Convention emission inventory report 1990–2006 Submission to EMEP through the Executive Secretary of the UNECE. EEA Technical report. No 7
-  Etim, E U. (2016) Air pollution emission inventory along a major traffic route within Ibadan Metropolis, southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(11): 432-438.
-  Ewa, E.E., Iwara, A.I., Adeyemi, J.A. & Njar, G.N. (2013) Assessment of water quality of the Calabar River using multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(5): 3354-3363.
-  Gbibi M, (2009). Development in a fragile economy. 1998 Foundation Lecture Series. Federal University of Technology, Akure. Wikipedia (2006). Petroleum in Nigeria. Retrieved December 12, 2007
-  Gu, B., Sutton, M. A., Chang, S. X., Ge, Y. and Chang, J. (2014). Agricultural ammonia emissions contribute to China’s urban air pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Volume 12, Issue 5, Pages 265-266
-  Han, D. (2010) Air quality monitoring, Fushun-Kokkola. Available at: https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/19369/Dan%20Han%20Thesis.pdf?sequence=1
-  Han, X. and Naeher, L.P. (2006). A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world. Environ. Int. 32, 106–120.
-  Hassan, S.M. and Okobia, L.E. (2008). Survey of ambient air quality in some parts of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The Abuja Journal of Geography & Development, 2 (2): 1-16.
-  Hopke, P.K. (2009). Contemporary threats and air pollution. Atmospheric Environment 43, 87-93.
-  Hu, Y., Liu, X., Bai, J., Shih, K., Zeng, E. Y., and Cheng, H. (2013) Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 20: 6150-6159
-  Iwara, A. I., Njar, G. N., Deekor, T. N., and Ita, A. E. (2012) Effect of Adiabo abattoir on the water quality status of Calabar River in Odukpani, cross river state, Nigeria. Continental J. Environmental Sciences 6 (2): 36043.
-  Kanchan, A. K. G and Goyal, P. (2015). A review on air quality indexing system. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, 9-2, 101-113.
-  Lin, C. Y., Liu, S. C., Chou, C. C. K. T., Liu, H., C. T., Lee, C. S. et al., (2004). Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. 15, 759−784.
-  Liu, T., Wang, X., Wang, B., Ding, X., Deng, W. et al. (2014). Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou. Environ. Res. Lett 9, 064027
-  Magaji, J. Y. and Hassan S. M. (2015). An assessment of air quality in and around Gwagwalada abattoir, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Fct. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 5 (1): 87-92.
-  Mamtimin, B., and Meixner, F. X. (2011). Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China). The Science of the total environment, 409(7), 1277-1290.
-  Meng, Z. Y., Lin, W. L., Jiang, X. M., Yan, P., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y. M. et al., (2011). Characteristics of atmospheric ammonia over Beijing, China. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 6139-6151.
-  Nwakanma, C., Ikwa, U. E. and Ubuoh, E. I. (2016) Assessment of ambient air quality with special reference to NO2 in the waste dump site at Osisoma Ngwa LGA, Nigeria. Ecosys Ecograph, 6 (3): 1-3.
-  Ogundoke, O. and Yusuf, A. S. (2008). Air pollution arising from vehicular emissions and the associated human health problems in Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. Asset Series, 8 (2): 119-132.
-  Ohimain, E. I., Izah, S. C. and Abah, S. O. (2013). Air quality impacts of smallholder oil palm processing in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 83-98.
-  Okunola, O. J., Uzairu, A., Gimba C. E. and Ndukwe, G. I. (2012) Assessment of gaseous pollutant along high traffic roads in Kano, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Sustainability, 1(1): 1-15.
-  Pervez, S., Dubey, N., Watson, J.S., Chow, J. and Pervez, Y. (2012). Impact of household fuel use on source apportionment results of house-indoor RPM in Central India. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12: 49-60.
-  Qi, S.H., Wang, X.M., Fu, J.M., Sheng, G.Y., Min, Y.S., (2000). Evaluation on pollution of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aerosols at different function areas of main cities in Pearl River Delta economic region. Geochimica 29 (4), 337–342.
-  Saville, S. B. (1993). Automotive options and quality management in developing countries. Industrial Environment, 16(1-2), 20-32.
-  Seinfeld, J.H. and Pandis, S. N. (1998) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
-  Song, J., Guang, W., Li, L. and Xiang, R. (2016). Assessment of air quality status in Wuhan, China. Atmosphere, 7, 56. doi:10.3390/atmos7040056
-  Syafei, A. D., Fujiwara, A. and Zhang, J. (2014). Spatial and temporal factors of air quality in surabaya city: an analysis based on a multilevel model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 138: 612-622.
-  Ukemenam, O. S. (2014) Causes and consequences of air pollution in Nigeria. South American Journal of Public Health, 2 (2): 293-307.
-  Weli, V. E. (2014) Atmospheric concentration of particulate pollutants and its implications for respiratory health hazard management in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6 (5): 11-17.
-  Weli, V. E. and Ayoade, J. O. (2014) Seasonal analysis of atmospheric pollutants concentrations in urban and rural landuse areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, 2 (3): 1-16.
-  Yang, W. Z. and Jiao, Y. (2017). The international research progress of Ammonia (NH3) emissions and emissions reduction technology in farmland ecosystem. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 59(2017) 012024. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/59/1/012024
-  Zhang, X.X., Shi, P.J., Liu, L.Y., Tang, Y., Cao, H.W., Zhang, X.N., Hu, X., Guo, L.L., Lue, Y.L., Qu, Z.Q., Jia, Z.J. and Yang, Y.Y. (2010). Ambient TSP concentration and dustfall in major cities of China: Spatial distribution and temporal variability. Atmos. Environ. 44: 1641–1648.
-  Zhao, S., Da, L., Tang, Z., Fang, H., Song, K. and Fang, J. (2006). Ecological consequences of rapid urban expansion: Shanghai, China. Front Ecol Environ 4(7): 341-346.
-  Zhou, T., Gan, L., kang, Z., Fang, H., and Song, K (2004) Atmospheric concentration of particulate pollutants and its implications for respiratory health hazard management in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6 (5): 11-17.
Publication order reference