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Extraction and Characterization of Hydrocolloid Pectin from Goron Tula (Azanza garckeana) fruit

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Pectin is a naturally occurring biopolymer and hydrocolloids are polymeric cross-linked network structures, both can be used for food and pharmaceutical applications. This study investigated the effect of temperature, time and pH on the yield, physicochemical characteristics of water soluble pectin extracted from Azanza garckeana fruits. The pectin was extracted using the acid extraction method followed by 96% alcohol precipitation. The optimum temperature, time and pH for the extraction of pectin for both dried and wet fruits were determined to be 85⁰C, 90 minutes and 2 respectively. The yields of pectin under these optimum conditions were found to be 24.38 and 26.75% for DAG and WAG fruits extracts respectively. Temperature, extraction time and pH showed a significant effect on the pectin yield with the wet sample extracts been the highest. The physicochemical properties determined under these optimum conditions were found to be; equivalent weight; 813.64 and 840.55 mg/mol, methoxyl content: 6.62 and 7.43% anhydrouronic acid content; 60.90 and 66.40% degree of esterification; 72.45 and 85.95%, moisture content; 2.21 and 1.80% and ash content; 0.80 and 0.60% for DAG and WAG fruits extracted pectin respectively. The swelling ratio was observed to increase with increasing temperature, and swelling medium also has significant influence on the swelling ratio, as it increased with high pH due to complete hydrolysis of carboxylate. FTIR was also utilized for characterizing the pectins and hydrocolloid which was favourably compared with the available standards. Generally, the findings of the study showed that the pectin extracted from Azanza garckeana fruits can find industrial applications, especially in food processing and pharmaceutical industries.
Physical description
  • Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
  • Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
  • Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
  • Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
  • Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
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