PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2006 | 6 | 3 | 127-132
Article title

Lęk separacyjny a historia życia

Content
Title variants
EN
Separation anxiety and history of life
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Anxiety affects people from their earliest moments of life. The closeness of a beloved person, for the child usually its mother, helps to face the anxiety and become acquainted with the world in a sense of safety. A normative separation anxiety in the early developmental period in children brought up in a safe environment passes without disturbing the child's development. Attachment which does not give a sense of safety does not allow the children and adolescents to reach an autonomy and undertake exploration of new aspects of the world. Parental attitudes, parents' mental and physical health, the way of perceiving the environment, traumatic events in the child's family and life, genetical environmental and individual effects determine the occurrence of pathological separation anxiety. Depending on the care system, the children react differently to separation situations. The parents who are unable to provide for the child a sense of safety are not able to make the child feel confidently during their absence, either. Temperamental anxiety characteristics may inhibit learning the sense of safety while the parents are absent. Parents of anxiety-affected children do not give them any autonomy, they exhibit a higher level of anxiety themselves and shape avoidance of anxiety-related situations by their behaviour. An unexpected separation in their childhood favours a fear of separation. Aetiology of separation anxiety is related to both genetic and environmental factors. Age and gender affect the ratio of the share of environmental and genetic factors. With age, the impact of the environment decreases, while the role of genetic factors is increased. Separation anxiety in childhood may herald agoraphobia and panic disorder in adulthood. Separation anxiety significantly disturbs passing to subsequent developmental stages and inhibits or even prevents education, limits contacts in peers environment, hampers undertaking independent roles in adulthood, and causes the patient's subjective suffering.
PL
Lęk towarzyszy człowiekowi od najwcześniejszych momentów życia. Bliskość kochanej osoby, dla dziecka z reguły matki, pomaga przeciwstawiać się lękowi i poznawać świat w poczuciu bezpieczeństwa. Normatywny lęk separacyjny we wczesnym okresie rozwoju u wychowywanych w bezpiecznym otoczeniu dzieci mija, nie zaburzając rozwoju dziecka. Przywiązanie niedające poczucia bezpieczeństwa nie pozwala dzieciom i młodzieży uzyskiwać autonomii i podejmować eksploracji nowych aspektów świata. Postawy rodzicielskie, zdrowie psychiczne i fizyczne rodziców, sposób postrzegania otoczenia, traumatyczne wydarzenia w rodzinie i życiu dziecka, genetyczne środowiskowe i indywidualne wpływy determinują ujawnienie się patologicznego lęku separacyjnego. W zależności od systemu opieki dzieci różnie reagują na sytuacje separacji. Rodzice, którzy nie są w stanie zapewnić dziecku poczucia bezpieczeństwa, nie są też w stanie sprawić, by poczuło się ono pewnie podczas ich nieobecności. Cechy lękowe temperamentu mogą utrudniać wyuczenie poczucia bezpieczeństwa w przypadku nieobecności rodziców. Rodzice dzieci lękowych nie dają im autonomii, sami mają wyższy poziom lęku, modelują swoim zachowaniem unikanie lękowych sytuacji. Niespodziewane rozdzielenie we wczesnym dzieciństwie sprzyja obawie przed separacją. W etiologii lęku separacyjnego odgrywają rolę zarówno czynniki genetyczne, jak i środowiskowe. Wiek i płeć wpływają na stosunek udziału czynników środowiskowych i genetycznych. Wraz z wiekiem maleje wpływ środowiska, a wzrasta rola czynników dziedzicznych. Lęk separacyjny w dzieciństwie poprzedza agorafobię i zaburzenia paniczne w dorosłości. Lęk separacyjny znacząco zaburza przechodzenie do następnych etapów rozwojowych, utrudnia, a niekiedy uniemożliwia kształcenie się, ogranicza kontakty w środowisku rówieśniczym, hamuje podejmowanie samodzielnych ról w dorosłości, powoduje subiektywne cierpienie pacjenta.
Discipline
Year
Volume
6
Issue
3
Pages
127-132
Physical description
Contributors
  • Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum w Bydgoszczy, UMK Toruń. Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. A. Araszkiewicz
References
  • 1. Albano A.M., DiBartolo P.M., Heimberg R.G., Barlow D.H.: Children and adolescents: assessment and treatment. W: Heimberg R.G., Liebowitz M.R., Hope DA., Schneier F.R. (red.): Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment. Guilford Press, New York 1995: 387-425.
  • 2. Keller M.B., Lavori PW, Wunder J. i wsp.: Chronic course of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1992; 31: 595-599.
  • 3. Popper C.W.: Psychopharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents and children. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1993; 54 supl.: 52-63.
  • 4. Silove D., Manicavasagar V, O’Connell D., Morris-Yates A.: Genetic factors in early separation anxiety: implications for the genesis of adult anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1995; 92: 17-24.
  • 5. Bandelow B., Alvarez Tichauer G., Spath C. i wsp.: Separation anxiety and actual separation experiences during childhood in patients with panic disorder. Can. J. Psychiatry 2001; 46: 948-952.
  • 6. Balon R., YeraganiVK., Pohl R.: Higher frequency of separation anxiety in panic disorder patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 1989; 146: 1351.
  • 7. Dadds M.R., Holland D.E., Laurens K.R. i wsp.: Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: results at 2-year follow-up. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1999; 67: 145-150.
  • 8. Klasyfikacja zaburzeń psychicznych i zaburzeń zachowania w ICD-10. Uniwersyteckie Wydawnictwo Medyczne „Vesalius”, Wyd. Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Kraków - Warszawa 2000.
  • 9. Manicavasagar V., Silove D., Curtis J., Wagner R.: Continuities of separation anxiety from early life into adulthood. J. Anxiety Disord. 2000; 14: 1-18.
  • 10. ManicavasagarV., Silove D.: Is there an adult form of separation anxiety disorder? A brief clinical report. Aust. N.Z. J. Psychiatry 1997; 31: 299-303.
  • 11. Lipsitz J.D., Martin L.Y., Mannuzza S. i wsp.: Childhood separation anxiety disorder in patients with adult anxiety disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 1994; 151: 927-929.
  • 12. Sylvester C.: Separation anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders. W: Sadock B.J., SadockVA. (red.): Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Lippin-cott Williams & Wilkins, 2000: 2770-2781.
  • 13. King N.J., Hamilton D.I., Ollendick T.H.: Children’s Phobias: A Behavioral Perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Chichester 1988.
  • 14. Last C.G., Hersen M., Kazdin A. i wsp.: Anxiety disorders in children and their families. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1991: 48: 928-934.
  • 15. ManicavasagarV., Silove D., Rapee R. i wsp.: Parent-child concordance for separation anxiety: a clinical study. J. Affect. Disord. 2001; 65: 81-84.
  • 16. Dellisch H.: Pathologic anxiety in the family. Prax. Kinder-psychol. Kinderpsychiatr. 1991; 40: 128-133.
  • 17. Mancini C., van Ameringen M., Szatmari P i wsp.: A highrisk pilot study of the children of adults with social phobia. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1996; 35: 1511-1517.
  • 18. Canino G.J., Bird H.R., Rubio-Stipec M. i wsp.: Children of parents with psychiatric disorder in the community. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1990; 29: 398-406.
  • 19. Whaley S.E., Pinto A., Sigman M.: Characterizing interactions between anxious mothers and their children. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1999; 67: 826-836.
  • 20. Kendler K.S., Neale M.C., Kessler R.C. i wsp.: Major depression and phobias: the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity. Psychol. Med. 1993; 23: 361-371.
  • 21. Last C.G., Hersen M., Kazdin A.E. i wsp.: Psychiatric illness in the mothers of anxious children. Am. J. Psychiatry 1987; 144: 1580-1583.
  • 22. Weissman M.M., Leckman J.F., Merikangas K.R. i wsp.: Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1984; 41: 845-852.
  • 23. Parker G.: Parental Over-Protection: A Risk Factor in Psychosocial Development. Grune & Stratton, New York 1983.
  • 24. Bowlby J .: Attachment and Loss. Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety & Anger. Basic Books, New York 1973.
  • 25. Namysłowska I. (red.): Psychiatria dzieci i młodzieży. PZWL, Warszawa 2004.
  • 26. Ainsworth M.D.S., Blehar M.C., Waters E., Wall S.: Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ 1978.
  • 27. Florkowski A., Dietrich-Muszalska A.: Analiza rozpoznań psychiatrycznych u dzieci z objawami lęku. Psychiatr. Pol. 1995; 29: 175-180.
  • 28. Thapar A., McGuffin P.: Are anxiety symptoms in childhood heritable? J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 1995; 36: 439-447.
  • 29. Legrand L.N., McGue M., Iacono W.G.: A twin study of state and trait anxiety in childhood and adolescence. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 1999; 40: 953-958.
  • 30. Eley T.C., Stevenson J.: Using genetic analyses to clarify the distinction between depressive and anxious symptoms in children. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 1999; 27: 105-114.
  • 31. Biederman J., Rosenbaum J.F., Bolduc-Murphy EA. i wsp.: A 3-year follow-up of children with and without behavioral inhibition. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1993; 32: 814-821.
  • 32. DiLalla L.F., Kagan J., Reznick J.S.: Genetic etiology of behavioral inhibition among 2-year-old children. Infant Behav. Dev. 1994; 17: 405-412.
  • 33. Eaves L.J., Silberg J.L., Meyer J.M. i wsp.: Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 1997; 38: 965-980.
  • 34. Topolski T.D., Hewitt J.K., Eaves L.J. i wsp.: Genetic and environmental influences on child reports of manifest anxiety and symptoms of separation anxiety and overanxious disorders: a community-based twin study. Behav. Genet. 1997; 27: 15-28.
  • 35. Livingston R., Reis C.J., Ringdahl I.C.: Abnormal dexam-ethasone suppression test results in depressed and nondepressed children. Am. J. Psychiatry 1984; 141: 106-108.
  • 36. Hirshfeld D.R., Rosenbaum J.F., Biederman J. i wsp.: Stable behavioral inhibition and its association with anxiety disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1992; 31: 103-111.
  • 37. Kagan J., Reznick J.S., Snidman N.: The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Dev. 1987; 58: 1459-1473.
  • 38. Kagan J., Reznick J.S., Snidman N.: Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science 1988; 240: 167-171.
  • 39. Kendler K.S., Neale M.C., Kessler R.C. i wsp.: Childhood parental loss and adult psychopathology in women. A twin study perspective. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1992; 49: 109-116.
  • 40. Gittelman-Klein R., Klein D.F.: Separation anxiety in school refusal and its treatment with drugs. W: Hersov L., Berg I. (red.): Out of School: Modern Perspectives in Truancy and School Refusal. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Chichester 1980: 321-341.
  • 41. Poulton R., Milne B.J., Craske M.G., Menzies R.G.: A longitudinal study of the etiology of separation anxiety. Behav. Res. Ther. 2001; 39: 1395-1410.
  • 42. Feigon S.A., Waldman I.D., Levy F., Hay D.A.: Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and their moderation by age and sex. Behav. Genet. 2001; 31: 403-411.
  • 43. Sroufe L.A., Carlson E.A., Levy A.K., Egeland B.: Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol. 1999; 11: 1-13.
  • 44. Cronk N.J., Slutske W.S., Madden PA. i wsp.: Risk for separation anxiety disorder among girls: paternal absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and genetic vulnerability. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 2004; 113: 237-247.
  • 45. Donovan C.L., Spence S.H.: Prevention of childhood anxiety disorders. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2000; 20: 509-531.
  • 46. Verduin T.L., Kendall P.C.: Differential occurrence of comorbidity within childhood anxiety disorders. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 2003; 32: 290-295.
  • 47. Jurbergs N., Ledley D.R.: Separation anxiety disorder. Pediatr. Ann. 2005; 34: 108-115.
  • 48. Kolvin I., Berney TP, Bhate S.R.: Depression in school phobia. Br. J. Psychiatry 1987; 150: 268-270.
  • 49. Keller M.B., Lavori PW, Wunder J. i wsp.: Chronic course of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1992; 31: 595-599.
  • 50. Feldman M., Wilson A.: Adolescent suicidality in urban minorities and its relationship to conduct disorders, depression, and separation anxiety. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1997; 36: 75-84.
  • 51. Geller B., Chestnut E.C., Miller M.D. i wsp.: Preliminary data on DSM-III associated features of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Am. J. Psychiatry 1985; 142: 643-644.
  • 52. Matthews S., Charlton B.G.: Phenomenology of panic attacks reflects human evolutionary history of separation anxiety. Ir. Med. J. 2000; 93: 184-185.
  • 53. Francis G., Last C.G., Strauss C.C.: Expression of separation anxiety disorder: the roles of age and gender. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 1987; 18: 82-89.
  • 54. Werry J.S.: Physical illness, symptoms and allied disorders. W: Quay H.C., Werry J.S. (red.): Psychopathological Disorders of Childhood. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York 1986: 232-293.
  • 55. Berg I., Butler A., Hall G.: The outcome of adolescent school phobia. Br. J. Psychiatry 1976; 128: 80-85.
  • 56. Ohtaka K., Wakabayashi S., Enomoto K. i wsp.: A longterm follow-up study of school refusal children. Jpn. J. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. 1986; 27: 213-219.
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-d63de3ab-c823-4c38-9106-607892645f84
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.