Self-esteem analyses in people who are deaf or hard of hearing: a comparison between active and inactive individuals
Languages of publication
The aim of the study was to analyse the status of SE in people who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of people who are D/HH (n=117) was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active ; n=27) and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive ; n=90) . The Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as a primary research method. 10 - item scale measures global self - worth by me asuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points) indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi - square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive people who are D /HH. We found that t he mean score of RSES in the group of people who are D/HH was 28.83 points; active people who are D/HH observed total score of RSES 30.18 points and group of inactive people who are D/HH showed the lowest SE by achieving 28.89 points. M ean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive people who are D/HH revealed higher SE in the group of active people with hearing loss. Significantly higher SE of active people who are D/HH was presented only by 1 from 10 RSES items . Th e results of our study confirmed that actively living people with hearing loss have higher SE comparing those who are living sedentary life style.
- 1. WHO Media Centre: Deafness and hearing loss. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/; 2017.
- 2. Uchida W, Marsh H. & Hashimoto K.: Predisctors and correlates of self-esteem in deaf athletes. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity 2015;8(1):21–30.
- 3. Baumeister RF, Campbell JD, Krueger JI & Vohs KD: Does high selfesteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2003;4(1):1-44.
- 4. Fox KR & Corbin CB: The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 1989;11(4):408–430.
- 5. Sonstroem RJ: Exercise and selfesteem. W. P. Morgan (Ed.), Exercise and mental health (pp. 128– 143). Washington DC: Taylor & Francis;1997.
- 6. Jambor E. & Elliott M: Self-esteem and coping strategies among deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 2005;10(1):63–81.
- 7. Hintermair M: Self-esteem and satisfaction with life of deaf and hard-ofhearing people: A resource-oriented approach to identity work. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. 2007;13(2):278–300.
- 8. Bendíková E: Význam pohybovej aktivity v spôsobe života senioriek. [Meaning of physical activity in senior’s life style]. Telesná výchova a šport [Physical Education and Sport] 2010;20(4):10-15. [In Slovak]
- 9. Bendíková E: Lifestyle, physical and sports education and health benefits of physical activity. European researcher : international multidisciplinary journal 2014;69(2-2):343-348.
- 10. Shek YL & McEwen MK.: The relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict to self-esteem of Asian American undergraduate men. Journal of College Student Development 2012;53(5):703– 718.
- 11. Nemček D: Cognitive element of subjective well-being of the Slovak population. Physical Activity, Health and Prevention: International Scientific Conference (pp. 62-67). Žilina: IPV Institute of Education, 2016.
- 12. Johnson VRF & Yarhouse MA: Shame in sexual minorities: Stigma, internal cognitions, and counseling considerations. Counseling and Values 2013;58(1):85–103.
- 13. Salehi M, Tavakol KH, Shabani M & Ziaei T: The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Sexual Self-Concept in People With Physical-Motor Disabilities. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2014;17(1):1-7.
- 14. Crocker J & Major B: Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review 1989;96(4):608–630.
- 15. Labudová J, Nemček J & Kraček S: Šport na každý deň. [Sport for everyday]. Bratislava: END spol.s.r.o., 2015 [In Slovak]
- 16. Bendíková E & Labudová J: Športové aktivity žien z hľadiska zdravia a sociálnej inklúzie [Sport activities in women from health and social inclusion point of view]. Šport a rekreácia 2012: zborník vedeckých prác. [Sport and Recreation 2012 proceedings] (pp. 3-11). Nitra: UKF, PF, 2012. [In Slovak]
- 17. Bardel M, Fontayne P, Colombel F & Schiphof L: Effects of match result and social comparison on sport state self-esteem fluctuations. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2010;11(3):171–176.
- 18. Adie JW, Duda JL & Ntoumanis N: Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2008;30(3):302–322.
- 19. Onagbiye SO, Moss SJ & Cameron M: Managing Noncommunicable Diseases in an African Community: Effects, Compliance, and Barriers to Participation in a 4-Week Exercise Intervention. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 2016;36(3):165–76.
- 20. Moss S, Oviedo GR, Tamulevicius N & Cameron M: The effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on risk factors of non-communicable diseases in black African population: the B-Healthy study - a controlled trial. Avaliable from: http://www.ltmic.co.za/sessions/the-effect-of-a-12-week-exercise-intervention-on-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-black-african-population-the-b-healthy-study-a-controlled-trial/;2016.
- 21. Bendíková E & Nemček D: Life satisfaction in healthy people and people with noncommunicable diseases: Differences between active and inactive individuals. Sport Science 2016;9(2):19-23.
- 22. Kurková P: Vzdělávání žáků se sluchovým postížením z hlediska vedení ke zdravému životnímu stylu. [The education of pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing from guiding to healthy life style point of view]. Olomouc: Palacky University in Olomouc, 2010. [In Czech]
- 23. Nemček D: Quality of life of people with disabilities: differences in satisfaction with indicators and domains between active and inactive individuals. Physical Activity Review 2016;4(4):62-71.
- 24. Nemček D: Quality of life of people with disabilities from sport participation point of view. Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae 2016;56(2):77-92.
- 25. Lundqvist C: Well-being in competitive sport—The feel-good factor? A review of conceptual considerations of well-being. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2011;4(2):109–127.
- 26. Kurková P, Válková H. & Scheetz N: Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences 2011;29(6):607–618.
- 27. Bartholomew KJ, Ntoumanis N, Ryan RM & Thogersen-Ntoumani C: Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2011;33(1):75–102.
- 28. Munoz-Baell IM & Ruiz MT: Empowering the deaf. Let the deaf be deaf. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2000;54(1):40–44.
- 29. Kurková P: Emotions in the physical activi ties of Czech students who are deaf or hard of hearing in general and special education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport 2015;15(4):823–828.
- 30. Crocker J, & Major B: Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review 1989;96(4):608–630.
- 31. Schick B, Skalicky A, Edwards T, Kushalnagar P, Topolski T & Patrick D: School placement and perceived quality of life in youth who are deaf or hard of hearing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 2013;18(1):47–61.
- 32. Bat-Chava Y: Antecedents of self-esteem in deaf people: A meta-analytic review. Rehabilitation Psychology 1993;38(4):221–234.
- 33. Kurková P & Maertin JJ: The benefits of square dancing as a means of physical activity for Czech dancers with hearing loss. Acta Gymnica 2014;44(4):223–230.
- 34. Kurková P, Scheetz NA & Stelzer J: Health and physical education as an important part of school curricula: A comparison of schools for the deaf in the Czech Republic and the United States. American Annals of the Deaf 2010;155(1):78–87.
- 35. Punch R. & Hyde M: Social participation of children and adolescents with cochlear implants: A qualitative analysis of parent, teacher, and child interviews. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 2011;16(4):474–493.
- 36. Rosenberg M: Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press;1965.
- 37. Nemček D, Labudová J & Oršulová N: Self-esteem in people with disabilities. Acta Facultatis Educationis physicae Universitatis Comenianae 2014;54(2):33-42.
- 38. Tam S: Comparing the self-concepts of persons with and without physical disabilities. Journal of Psychology 1998;132(1):78–86.
- 39. King GA, Shultz IZ, Steel K, Gilpin M & Carthers T: Self-evaluation and self-concept of adolescents with physical disabilities. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47(2):132–140.
- 40. Heydari A, Mashak R & Darvishi H: Compare of the Self-Efficacy, Loneliness, Fear of success and Satisfaction in Physically Disabled Students with Normal Students in Ahvaz Islamic Azad Uni-versity. New Find Psychology 2009;10(4):7–26.
- 41. Nemček D: Life satisfaction of people with disabilities: a comparison between active and sedentary individuals. Journal of Physical Education and Sport 2016;16(2):1084-1088.
- 42. Nemček D: Life satisfaction of people with disabilities. Theory and practice in adapted physical activity (pp. 46). Olsztyń, Poland: Olsztyńska szkola wyźsza Im. Józefa Rusieckiego, 2013.
- 43. Nemček D, Labudová J, Javanainen-Levonen T & Wittmannová J: Quality of life between active population and population with sedentary behavior. EUCAPA-European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity (pp. 1). Madrid, Spain: Universidad politécnica de Madrid, 2014.
Publication order reference