Spatial Distribution of Rainfall with Elevation in Satluj River Basin: 1986-2010, Himachal Pradesh, India
Languages of publication
The complex relationship between topography and precipitation in mountainous regions such as Himalayas is evident from the pattern of rainfall distribution. The variation in precipitation with altitude is controlled by mean height of clouds and decrease in water vapours with altitude. Spatially distributed measurements of precipitation have gained renewed interest in connection with climate change impact studies. Precipitation values are usually available from a limited number of gauge stations and their spatial estimates can be obtained by interpolation techniques such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), Kriging and Spline. In the present study, precipitation-elevation relationship can be established using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-ASTER, 30m resolution), Spline interpolation technique in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and point data from various gauge stations spread over the Satluj River Basin. Changes of spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation show a distinct shift. Bhakra Dam (5854.60 mm) to Rampur (4451.10 mm), there is continuous variation in rainfall with increase in altitude. But beyond Rampur, variation is very high. Swarghat shows exceptional rainfall (8031.76 mm), may be due to position of mountains and their orographic effects. Maximum rainfall was observed in the lower Himalayas i.e. Shiwalik range. Negligible rainfall was observed beyond Kaza (470 mm), above the elevation of around 3756 m. The general trend of rainfall exhibits that the lower and middle parts experience good rainfall whereas the upper part experiences less rainfall. Such spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall with elevation provides an important platform for hydrologic analysis, planning and management of water resources.
-  Bacchi B and Kottegoda NT (1995). Identification and calibration of spatial correlation patterns of rainfall, Journal of Hydrology, 165(1-4): 311-348.
-  Bartarya SK, Virdi NS and Sah MP (1996). Landslide hazards: Some case studies from the Satluj Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayan Geology, 17: 193-207.
-  Basistha A, Arya DS and Goel NK (2008). Spatial distribution of rainfall in Indian Himalayas – A case study of Uttarakhand Region, Water Resources Management, 22: 1325-1346.
-  Burrough PA, McDonnel RA (1998). Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, New York.
-  Collins FC, Bolstad PV (1996). A comparison of spatial interpolation techniques in temperature estimation. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, New Mexico, January 21-25. National Center for Geographic Information Analysis (NCGIA), Santa Barbara, California.
-  Dhar ON and Rakhecha PR (1981). The effect of elevation on monsoon rainfall distribution in the Central Himalayas, Proc. International Symposium on Monsoon Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, pp. 253-260.
-  Eckstein BA (1989). Evaluation of spline and weighted average interpolation algorithms, Computational Geosciences, 15: 79-94.
-  Garg PK (1991). Development of a catchment scale erosion model for semiarid environment and its implementation through remote sensing, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.
-  Goovaerts P. (2000). Geostatistical approaches for incorporating elevation into the spatial interpolation of rainfall, Journal of Hydrology, 228: 113-29.
-  Guenni L and Hutchinson MF (1998). Spatial interpolation of the parameters of a rainfall model from ground based data. Journal of Hydrology, 212-213: 335-347.
-  Gupta V and Sah MP (2008). Impacts of the Trans-Himalayan Landslide Lake Outburst Flood (LLOF) in the Satluj catchment, Himachal Pradesh, India, Natural Hazards, 45: 379-390.
-  Gupta V, Sah MP, Virdi NS and Bartarya SK (1994). Landslide hazard zonation in the Upper Satluj Valley, District. Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, Journal of Himalayan Geology, 4(1): 81-93.
-  Higuchi K, Ageta Y, Yasunari T and Inoue J (1982). Characteristics of precipitation during monsoon season in high mountain areas of the Nepal Himalayas, Hydrological Aspects of Alpine and High Mountain Areas, IAHS, 138: 21-30.
-  Hill SA (1881). The meteorology of North-West Himalaya, Indian Meteorological Memoir, I(VI): 377-429.
-  Hutchinson MF (1993). On thin plate smoothing splines and kriging, Computer Science Statistics, 25: 55-62.
-  Hutchinson MF (1998). Interpolation of rainfall data with thin plate smoothing splines, Part I: Two dimensional smoothing of data with short range co-relation, Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis, 2: 152-167.
-  Hutchinson MF (1998). Interpolation of rainfall data with thin plate smoothing splines, Part II: Analysis of topographic dependence, Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis, 2: 168-185.
-  Hutchinson MF and Gessler PE (1994). Splines – more than just a smooth interpolator, Geoderma, 62: 45-67.
-  IPCC (2001a). Climate change 2001: Synthesis Report, In: (eds. Watson et al.), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, USA, pp. 398.
-  Moore ID, Gessler PE, Nielson GA (1993). Soil attribute prediction using terrain analysis, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57: 443-452.
-  Price DT, McKenney DW, Nalder IA, Hutchinson MF, Kesteven JL (1999). A comparison of two statistical methods for spatial interpolation of Canadian monthly mean climate data, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 101: 81-94.
-  Schadler and Bruno (2004). Climate change issues and adaptation strategies in a mountainous region: a case study of Switzerland, Proceedings of the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development: Development and Climate Change, pp. 9.
-  Singh P. and Kumar N. (1997). Impact assessment of climate change on the hydrological response of a snow and glacier melt runoff dominated Himalayan River, Journal of Hydrology, 193: 316-350.
-  Singh P and Kumar N (1997b). Effect of orography on precipitation in the western Himalayan region, Journal of Hydrology, 199: 183-206.
-  Singh P, Ramasastri KS and Kumar N (1995). Topographical Influence on precipitation distribution in different ranges of Western Himalayas, Nordic Hydrology, 26: 259-284.
-  Taesombat W and Sriwongsitanon N (2009). Areal rainfall estimation using spatial interpolation techniques, Science Asia, 35: 268-275.
-  Taher S and Alshaikh A (1998). Spatial analysis of rainfall in Southwest of Saudi Arabia using GIS, Nordic Hydrology, 29(2): 91-104.
-  Wahba G and Wendelberger J (1980). Some new mathematical methods for variational objective analysis using splines and cross-validation, Monthly Weather Review, 108: 1122-1145.
Publication order reference