Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2016 | 57 | 603-610
Article title

Legal basis of landscape protection in relation to the RES investments implementation

Title variants
Languages of publication
In recent years, Poland has seen a dynamic growth of investments in the energy sector using renewable energy sources. From Poland's adoption of the National Action Plan for energy from renewable sources (year 2010) the number of biogas power plants in Poland increased by 36%, biomass power plants and wind power plants with 200% and the solar power plants as much as 4000%. The smallest increase was recorded in the case of hydroelectric power by only 5%. The development of new renewable energy investments is often accompanied by significant changes in the landscape. To a large extent this is due to the scale of objects or their accumulation. The aim of the study is to determine if the instruments of landscape protection can be considered as sufficient in landscape protection from negative changes in relation to the investment RES. We analyzed the provisions relating to planning, implementation of the investment, environmental protection, nature conservation and protection of monuments. These provisions largely allow you to limit the negative impact of the RES on the landscape. They are connected mainly with the restrictions in locating RES investments in the landscape as well as reducing the impact of which may cause RES investments on the landscape. It should however be emphasized that they relate to selected projects or selected landscapes (eg. priority landscapes). Mainly, these instruments seem to be an effective tool for landscape protection in case of implementation of RES installations producing electricity on an industrial scale. However, there is a shortage of effective measures to protect the landscape in the nucleus of the implementation of micro-installations of renewable energy sources.
Physical description
  • Department of Landscape Architecture, Biotechnology and Landscape, Faculty of Horticulture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
  • Department of Landscape Architecture, Biotechnology and Landscape, Faculty of Horticulture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
  • [1] Apostol, D., Palmer, J., Pasqualetti, M., Smardon, R., & Sullivan, R. (Eds.). The Renewable Energy Landscape: Preserving Scenic Values in our Sustainable Future. Routledge (2016).
  • [2] Sijmons, D., Hugtenburg, J., van Hoorn, A., & Feddes, F. (Eds.). Landscape and Energy: Designing Transition (2014).
  • [3] Frantál, B., & Prousek, A. It's not right, but we do it. Exploring why and how Czech farmers become renewable energy producers. Biomass and Bioenergy 87 (2016) 26-34.
  • [4] González, J. S., Rodriguez, A. G. G., Mora, J. C., Santos, J. R., & Payan, M. B. Optimization of wind farm turbines layout using an evolutive algorithm. Renewable Energy, 35(8) (2010) 1671-1681.
  • [5] Stremke, S., & van den Dobbelsteen, A. (Eds.). Sustainable energy landscapes: designing, planning, and development. CRC Press (2012).
  • [6] B. Turvey. Scottish Natural Heritage Renewable energy and the natural heritage. Position statement, (2014). Available at:
  • [7] Wolsink, M. Planning of renewables schemes: Deliberative and fair decision-making on landscape issues instead of reproachful accusations of non-cooperation. Energy policy, 35(5) (2007) 2692-2704.
  • [8] Toke, D., Breukers, S., & Wolsink, M. Wind power deployment outcomes: How can we account for the differences? Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 12(4) (2008) 1129-1147.
  • [9] Breukers, S., & Wolsink, M. Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: an international comparison. Energy policy, 35(5) (2007) 2737-2750.
  • [10] Szumilas, H., & Giedych, R., Kształtowanie i ochrona krajobrazów energetyki odnawialnej w kontekście nowych przepisów obowiązujących w Polsce. In B. Zdunek & M. Olszówka (Eds.), Alternatywne źródła energii - wybrane zagadnienia (2016), 103-111. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe TYGIEL sp. z o. o. available at: [access 8 October 2016]
  • [11] Böhm, A. Skuteczność istniejących w Polsce instrumentów prawnych. Czasopismo Techniczne z.1-A (2008) 137-146.
  • [12] Kistowski, M. Perspektywy ochrony krajobrazu w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem parków krajobrazowych. Przegląd Przyrodniczy XXIII (3) (2012) 30-45.
  • [13] Kosmalska, J. Wiatrak po polsku to dominanta krajobrazowa. Ekologia i Rynek 3(24) (2014) 30-41.
  • [14] Antolak M., Polucha I., Jaszczak A., Marks E. Plantacje drzew i krzewów szybko rosnących w krajobrazie Polski. Prace Komisji Krajobrazu Kulturowego PTG, 25 (2014) 71-80.
  • [15] Radzi, A., & Droege, P. Latest Perspectives on Global Renewable Energy Policies. Current Sustainable / Renewable Energy Reports, 1(3) (2014) 85-93.
  • [16] Tsoutsos, T., Frantzeskaki, N., & Gekas, V. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies. Energy Policy, 33(3) (2005) 289-296.
  • [17] Giedych, R. Ocena wizualnego wpływu przedsięwzięć na krajobraz–nowe wyzwanie dla ocen środowiskowych Visual Impact Assessment – New Challenge For Environmental Impact Assessment, (2016). Available at:
  • [18] Badora, K. Ocena wpływu farm wiatrowych na krajobraz-aspekty metodyczne i praktyczne. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu (2011) 31.
  • [19] Sliz-Szkliniarz, B., & Vogt, J. GIS-based approach for the evaluation of wind energy potential: A case study for the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Voivodeship. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(3) (2011) 1696-1707.
  • [20] Igliński, B., Buczkowski, R., Iglińska, A., Cichosz, M., Piechota, G., & Kujawski, W. Agricultural biogas plants in Poland: investment process, economical and environmental aspects, biogas potential. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7) (2012) 4890-4900.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.