Diversity, phenology and biological spectrum of tree flora in upper Tanawal, district Mansehra, KP, Pakistan
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Upper Tanawallies in the mid of Western part of Hazara division including the remote areas of present day four districts i.e. Mansehra, Abbottabad, Haripur and Tor-Ghar, having latitude 34°.34.40´ N to 34°.48.88´ N and 72°.84.27´ E to 73°.10.50´ E longitude. Upper Tanawal is loaded with plant diversity. Tree species in this area varies in their life form, leaf spectra and phenological behavior. There is no prior record of plants diversity in the area so therefore this study was conducted to explore tree diversity, life form, leaf spectrum and phenology of tree flora. Total 127 sampling stands (10 x 10 m2) were sampled from different locations of the area to collect field data using quadrat method. Upper Tanawal hosts 53 different tree species of 39 generas belonging to 25 tree families. Biological spectra of the trees were constructed according to Raunkiaer (1934). Results showed that Mesophanerophytes was the dominant life form class contributing 34 (64%) tree species while, Mesophyll and Microphyll was the dominant leaf size spectrum classes contributing 18 (34%) tree species each. Frequent field visits were also carried out during flowering and fruiting seasons of the tree species in 2016/17. The result indicates that maximum tree species of the area show flowering during April-May (32%) while, maximum fruiting were recorded in June-July (36%). Anthropogenic activities on these forests should be reduced to overcome deforestation. This study will be the baseline for new researchers in the study area.
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