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2010 | 8 | 2 | 132-139
Article title

Rola ghreliny i obestatyny w procesach metabolicznych i nowotworowych u ludzi

Title variants
Role of ghrelin and obestatin in metabolic processes and in neoplastic conditions in humans
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Both ghrelin and obestatin are peptides derived from the same precursor – preprohormone – encoded on the 3rd chromosome (3p25-26). Both hormones are secreted to the bloodstream. Ghrelin has 28-amino acids with serine at position 3. It is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone receptor (GHS), which has been discovered in hypophysis and hypothalamus. Ghrelin may occur in active and inactive forms. In order to achieve biological activity, ghrelin must contain a N-octa-acetyl group of serine. Total ghrelin is a sum of active and inactive forms. Ghrelin and its receptors GHS-R1a and 1b (growth hormone secretagogue) are widespread in the body, being present mainly in the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, reproductive system, heart and kidneys. Obestatin is a recently discovered 23-amino acids long peptide, produced as a result of proteolytic splitting of the preprohormone ghrelin. Systemic distribution of ghrelin is less well known. Both ghrelin and obestatin play a role in energy management (control appetite, body mass, metabolism of fat and glucose, gastrointestinal function), influence cardiovascular, reproductive and immune systems and participate in modulation of central nervous system function. Ghrelin and obestatin regulate processes of cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Variations of ghrelin and obestatin levels, as well as expression of GHS-R in hypophyseal and neuroendocrine tumors, uterine myomas and both benign and malignant ovarian tumors, confirm their role in tumor development and are a promising topic for future studies in oncology.
Ghrelina i obestatyna są peptydami wywodzącymi się z tego samego prekursora – preprohormonu, który kodowany jest na chromosomie 3. (3p25-26); wydzielane są do krwi. Ghrelina to 28-aminokwasowy peptyd, zawierający serynę w pozycji 3. Jest endogennym ligandem receptora wzrostu (GHS), który wykryto w przysadce i podwzgórzu. Występuje ona w formie aktywnej i nieaktywnej. Aby otrzymać aktywność biologiczną, ghrelina musi zawierać N-oktaacetylową grupę seryny. Ghrelina całkowita to suma form aktywnej i nieaktywnej. Ghrelina i jej receptory GHS-R1a i 1b (growth hormone secretagogue) są szeroko rozpowszechnione w organizmie i występują między innymi w przewodzie pokarmowym, ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym, układzie rozrodczym, sercu i nerkach. Obestatyna to ostatnio wykryty 23-aminokwasowy peptyd powstały na skutek proteolitycznego rozszczepienia preprohormonu ghreliny. Dystrybucja obestatyny w organizmie jest mniej znana. Ghrelina i obestatyna biorą udział w kontroli bilansu energii (apetyt, masa ciała, metabolizm tłuszczów i glukozy, funkcje żołądkowo-jelitowe), a także odgrywają rolę w układzie sercowo-naczyniowym, rozrodczym, modulacji immunologicznej i ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym. Regulują procesy proliferacji i apoptozy komórek. Zmiany stężeń ghreliny i obestatyny oraz/lub ekspresja GHS-R w guzach przysadki mózgowej, guzach neuroendokrynnych przewodu pokarmowego (NET), mięśniakach macicy oraz guzach łagodnych i złośliwych jajnika wskazują na ich udział w rozwoju nowotworów i są obiecującym obiektem badań w onkologii.
Physical description
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